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NERC_DDC

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    In January 1993, as part of the Joule II Non-nuclear Energy Research Programme, the European Commission initiated a two year study of the potential for the disposal of industrial quantifies of carbon dioxide underground, with a view to reducing emissions to the atmosphere. The participants in the study were the British Geological Survey (UK), TNO Institute of Applied Geoscience (The Netherlands), BRGM (France), CRE Group Ltd (UK), IKU Petroleum Research (Norway), RWE AG (Germany), University of Sunderland Renewable Energy Centre (UK) and Statoil (Norway). The objective of the study was to examine whether carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources such as power stations, could be disposed of safely, economically and with no adverse effects on man and the environment. doi:10.1016/0196-8904(95)00308-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0196890495003088

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    To quantify the impact of leaked CO2 purposefully stored in subsea geological formations on the marine ecosystem, CO2 gas was injected into sandy sediments in a small bay in Scotland in 2012. Alongside the experiment, a numerical study was conducted to predict CO2 fate in the bay. CO2 may take the form both of the gas and dissolved phases when it seeps out from the seafloor. The bubble CO2 rises in the water column forming bubble plumes and dissolves into the seawater during its ascent. Measurements indicated that approximately 8–15% of the injected CO2 escaped the sediments in the gas phase and no empirical evidence was seen for fluxes in the dissolved phase. Therefore, it is thought that 85–92% of the CO2 remained within the sediments. However, the results of our numerical study suggest that 10–40% of the injected CO2 stayed in the sediment. Apart from unexpected errors in the present numerical simulation, a possible explanation for this discrepancy may be the heterogeneous nature of the sediment and observations limited in time and space. It is also recognised that the CO2 concentration away from the injection site is undetectably small and that the readily detectable signal is confined to a small area in the vicinity of the injection point. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Chiaki Mori et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.11.023.

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    In January 1993, as part of the Joule II Non-nuclear Energy Research Programme, the European Commission initiated a two year study of the potential for the disposal of industrial quantifies of carbon dioxide underground, with a view to reducing emissions to the atmosphere. The participants in the study were the British Geological Survey (UK), TNO Institute of Applied Geoscience (The Netherlands), BRGM (France), CRE Group Ltd (UK), IKU Petroleum Research (Norway), RWE AG (Germany), University of Sunderland Renewable Energy Centre (UK) and Statoil (Norway). The objective of the study was to examine whether carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources such as power stations, could be disposed of safely, economically and with no adverse effects on man and the environment. doi:10.1016/0196-8904(95)00308-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0196890495003088

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    Final SACS 1 Report - Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage : a demonstration project at the Sleipner Field. Work area 1 (geology). The report can be downloaded from http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/512807/.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project Determination of water solubility limits in CO2 mixtures to deliver water specification levels for CO2 transportation was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-21. Studies of the phase behaviour and water solubility of pure and impure CO2 are of great relevance to the transport phase of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) process. For transport through carbon steel pipelines, CO2 and any impurities present must be present as a single phase to avoid corrosion, and subsequent loss of pipeline integrity. Trace impurities such as H2 and N2 have been shown to alter the phase behaviour of the CO2 at high pressure. Understanding the effect of these impurities on the solubility of H2O in CO2 is vital to confirm the safety and viability of CO2 transport through carbon steel pipelines.

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    The data consists of a poster presented at the twelfth 'Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies' conference (GHGT-12), held in Austin, Texas, on the 6-9th October 2014. The psoter describes work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. The geomechanical and fault seal analysis of the naturally CO2-rich Fizzy Field in the UK Southern North Sea is investigated.

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    Membrane processes are a promising alternative to the more classical post-combustion capture technologies due to the reduced maintenance of the process, the absence of dangerous solvents and their smaller footprint. This project aims at supporting the development of new mixed matrix membranes for post-combustion applications. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are composite materials formed by embedding inorganic fillers into a polymeric matrix in order to overcome the upper bound and combine the characteristics of the two solid phases: mechanical properties, economical processing capabilities and permeability of the polymer and selectivity of the filler. Despite several studies on the concept, the interactions between the two phases and their effect on the transport properties are not well understood. Yet, this fundamental knowledge is crucial in order to design the reliable materials needed for real-world-applications. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-36.

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    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a promising means of lowering CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. However, concerns about the possibility of harmful CO2 leakage are contributing to slow widespread adoption of the technology. Research to date has failed to identify a cheap and effective means of unambiguously identifying leakage of CO2 injected, or a viable means of identifying ownership of it. This means that in the event of a leak from a storage site that multiple operators have injected into, it is impossible to determine whose CO2 is leaking. The on-going debate regarding leakage and how to detect it has been frequently documented in the popular press and scientific publications. This has contributed to public confusion and fear, particularly close to proposed storage sites, causing the cancellation of several large storage projects such as that at Barendrecht in the Netherlands. One means to reduce public fears over CCS is to demonstrate a simple method which is able to reliably detect the leakage of CO2 from a storage site and determine the ownership of that CO2. Measurements of noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon) and the ratios of light and heavy stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in natural CO2 fields have shown how CO2 is naturally stored over millions of years. Noble gases have also proved to be effective at identifying the natural leakage of CO2 above a CO2 reservoir in Arizona and an oil field in Wyoming and in ruling out the alleged leakage of CO2 from the Weyburn storage site in Canada. Recent research has shown amounts of krypton are enhanced relative to those of argon and helium in CO2 captured from a nitrate fertiliser plant in Brazil. This enrichment is due to the greater solubility of the heavier noble gases, so they are more readily dissolved into the solvent used for capture. This fingerprint has been shown to act as an effective means of tracking CO2 injected into Brazilian and USA oil fields to increase oil production. Similar enrichments in heavy noble gases, along with high helium concentrations are well documented in coals, coal-bed methane and in organic rich oil and gas source rocks. As noble gases are unreactive, these enrichments will not be affected by burning the gas or coal in a power station and hence will be passed onto the flue gases. Samples of CO2 obtained from an oxyfuel pilot CO2 capture plant at Lacq in France which contain helium and krypton enrichments well above atmospheric values confirm this. Despite identification of these distinctive fingerprints, no study has yet investigated if there is a correlation between them and different CO2 capture technologies or the fossil fuel being burnt. We propose to measure the carbon and oxygen stable isotope and noble gas fingerprint in captured CO2 from post, pre and oxyfuel pilot capture plants. We will find out if unique fingerprints arise from the capture technology used or fuel being burnt. We will determine if these fingerprints are distinctive enough to track the CO2 once it is injected underground without the need of adding expense artificial tracers. We will investigate if they are sufficient to distinguish ownership of multiple CO2 streams injected into the same storage site and if they can provide an early warning of unplanned CO2 movement out of the storage site. Grant number: EP/K036033/1.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Process-Performance Indexed Design of Ionic Liquids for Carbon Capture was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-199. The elevated cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently hindering its implementation at large scale. We aim to design a 'perfect' solvent for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). The design of the solvent is based on process performance indexes.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Multiscale Characterisation of CO2 Storage in the United Kingdom was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-197. We combine pore scale digital rock physics, reservoir condition special core analysis, and reservoir simulation to evaluate the performance of CO2 storage for the major target storage regions of the UK. Key objectives: • Develop a dataset of relative permeability and residual trapping for major storage targets in the UK (Fig. 1), obtained experimentally at reservoir conditions • Identify the contribution of pore scale rock morphology to multiphase flow dynamics and dissolution trapping • Use the data in reservoir simulations to update dynamic capacity estimation for UK reservoirs