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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:25 000 scale providing bedrock geology. Onshore coverage is partial and BGS has no intention to create a national coverage at this scale. Areas covered are essentially special areas of 'classic' geology and include Llandovery (central Wales), Coniston (Lake District) and Cuillan Hills (Isle of Skye). Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. The bedrock geology of Great Britain is very diverse and includes three broad classes based on their mode of origin: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. The data includes attribution to identify each rock type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volumes 1-3). The bedrock has formed over long periods of geological time, from the Archean eon some 7500 million years ago, to relatively young Pliocene, 58 million years ago. The age of the rocks is identified in the data through their BGS lexicon name (published for each deposit at the time of the original survey or subsequent digital data creation). For stratified rocks i.e. arranged in sequence, this will usually be of a lithostratigraphic type. Other rock types for example intrusive igneous bodies will be of a lithodemic type. More information on the formal naming of UK rocks is available in the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units. The bedrock theme defines landscape areas (shown as polygons). The data are attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release.

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    The Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry data are derived by spatial interpolation of the Measured Urban Soil Chemistry data. A unique feature of this dataset is the inclusion for the first time of estimated bioaccessible arsenic and lead data. The Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry data indicates the estimated geometric mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Lead in topsoil derived by spatial interpolation of the Measured Urban Soil Chemistry data. Estimated bioaccessible As and Pb concentrations are derived using linear regression models of the relationship between total and bioaccessible concentrations. The Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry data can be used to assist Local Planning Authorities to identify those areas where a risk assessment may need to be carried out by developers. Comparison of this spatially referenced geochemical data with information on current or historic land use and geological information might help environmental professionals decide whether high potentially harmful element (PHE) concentrations in topsoils can be attributed to geogenic or anthropogenic sources. The dataset is based on, and limited to, an interpretation of the records in the possession of the BGS at the time the dataset was created. This dataset consists of two shape files Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry (As, Cr, Ni) and Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry (Cd, Pb).

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    Data identifies landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of artificial or man-made ground. It indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. Limited coverage within Great Britain, data exists for 167 10x10km tiles. Most primary geological mapping was carried out at 1:10 000 scale but in some areas of Wales and Scotland mapping at 1:25 000 was adopted as the norm including areas with complex geology or in some areas of classic geology. Types of artificial ground include: Disturbed ground areas of ill-defined shallow or near surface mineral workings where distinction cannot be made between made and worked ground. Infilled ground areas where original geology has been removed and then wholly or partially back filled includes waste or landfill sites. Made ground man made features including embankments and spoil heaps. Worked ground areas where ground has been removed including quarries and road cuttings. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the shifting nature of land use and re-use caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release.

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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:25 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial and BGS has no intention to create a national coverage at this scale. Areas covered are essentially special areas of 'classic' geology and include Llandovery (central Wales), Coniston (Lake District) and Cuillan Hills (Isle of Skye). Mass movement describes areas where deposits have moved down slope under gravity to form landslips. These landslips can affect bedrock, superficial or artificial ground. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release. Mass movement deposits are described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme Volume 4. However the data also includes foundered strata, where ground has collapsed due to subsidence (this is not described in the Rock Classification Scheme). Caution should be exercised with this data; whilst mass movement events are recorded in the data due to the dynamic nature of occurrence significant changes may have occurred since the data was released. The data should therefore be regarded as a snapshot in time (as at 2008). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release.

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    Data identifies landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of artificial or man-made ground. It indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Types of artificial ground include: Infilled ground areas where original geology has been removed and then wholly or partially back filled includes waste or landfill sites. Landscaped ground areas where surface has been reshaped includes former sand and gravel workings for recreation and amenity use. Made ground man made features including embankments and spoil heaps. Reclaimed ground are areas of land fill, where new ground is created, usually in coastal margins, may be for example a consequence of draining of submerged wetlands and beach rebuilding. Worked ground areas where ground has been removed including quarries and road cuttings. Disturbed ground areas of ill-defined shallow or near surface mineral workings where distinction cannot be made between made and worked ground. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the constantly changing nature of land use and re-use/redevelopment caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    This dataset contains data from a marine geophysical and multibeam survey took place in June 2012 in the area of Ardmucknish Bay on board the RV White Ribbon. This was a follow up survey to the previous work carried out in this area (2011/4 and 2012/5). QICS (Quantifying and monitoring potential ecosystem impacts of geological carbon storage) was a scientific research project funded by NERC; its purpose was to improve the understanding of the sensitivities of the UK marine environment to a potential leak from a carbon capture storage (CCS) system. Sea floor bathymetry data were collected using a Kongsberg EM3002D multibeam system. Sub bottom seismic profiling data were collected using an Applied Acoustics surface tow boomer (STB). Webpage www.bgs.ac.uk/QICS/. NERC grant NE/H013954/1.

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    Revised full proposal cover sheet for scientific drilling (852-CPP2) 'GlaciStore: Understanding Pleistocene glaciation and basin processes and their impact on fluid migration pathways (North Sea)', submitted to Integrated Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) April 2016. The full proposal cover sheet document is publicly available from IODP; the submitted full proposal document is restricted to the proponents for publication and for review and response from IODP. The proposal is a revision of full proposal 852-CPP in response to review by IODP. The lead submitter, on behalf to the GlaciStore consortium is Heather Stewart, British Geological Survey (BGS).The 32 proponents are from research and industry organisations in the UK, Norway, USA and Canada (BGS, Institute for Energy Technology, Lundin Norway AS, Memorial University of Newfoundland, SINTEF Energy Research, Statoil ASA, University of Bergen, University of Edinburgh, University of Oslo and University of Ottawa University of Texas at Austin). The revised full proposal cover sheet states the names of proponents of the 'GlaciStore' consortium and details for the lead submitter of the bid. The full proposal cover sheet comprises: an abstract of the submitted full proposal including description of project funding support as a Complementary Project Proposal: describes and states the scientific research objectives; summarises proposed non-standard measurements; tabulates details of the 13 proposed drill sites (revised from full proposal CPP-852) to address the scientific objectives. The objectives are to investigate: glacial history and sedimentary architecture; fluid flow and microbial processes in shallow sediments; and the stress history and geomechanical models for strata that have experienced multiple glacial and interglacial cycles. The table of revised proposed drilling sites includes designation of primary or alternate sites, the co-ordinates of the position and water depth at each proposed site, the objective for drilling and sampling and the depth to achieve the objective. The proponents, their affiliation, expertise and role for the submission are listed. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C1-30.

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    Pre-proposal for scientific drilling 'GlaciStore: Understanding Late Cenozoic glaciation and basin processes for the development of secure large-scale offshore CO2storage (North Sea)', submitted to Integrated Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) March 2014. The proponent 'GlaciStore' consortium comprises research and industry organisations from the UK and Norway. The pre-proposal describes the scientific research objectives, 12 proposed drill sites to address the objectives, the relationship of the research with the IODP science plan, and describes and illustrates three scientific objectives. The objectives are to investigate the glacial history and sedimentary architecture, fluid flow and processes, and the stress history and geomechanical response in strata that have experienced multiple glacial and interglacial cycles cycles. A drilling and sampling strategy and the measurements expected to be taken are also described The lead submitter, on behalf to the GlaciStore consortium is Heather Stewart, British Geological Survey (BGS).The 27 proponents from the UK and Norway (BGS, Institute for Energy Technology, Lundin Norway AS, SINTEF Energy Research, Statoil ASA, University of Bergen, University of Edinburgh and University of Oslo) and their expertise are listed. The pre-proposal is a pdf format file. This is restricted to the proponents for publication and to progress to full proposal to IODP. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C1-30.

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    The potential for leakage of CO2 from a storage reservoir into the overlying marine sediments and into the water column and the impacts on benthic ecosystems are major challenges The potential for leakage of CO2 from a storage reservoir into the overlying marine sediments and into the water column and the impacts on benthic ecosystems are major challenges associated with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in subseafloor reservoirs. To investigate the consequences of CO2 leakage for the marine environment, a field-scale controlled CO2 release experiment was conducted in shallow, unconsolidated marine sediments. Changes of the chemical composition of the sediments, their pore waters and overlying water column were monitored before, during and up to 1 year after the 37-day long CO2 release from May 2012 to May 2013. In particular this focused on changes in the solid phase (physical properties, major and minor elemental composition, inorganic and organic carbon content), the pore water chemical composition (cations, anions, nutrients and the carbonate system parameters total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and isotopic signature of DIC) and the water column chemical composition (oxygen, nutrients, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon). This dataset was collected by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) under the program QICS (Quantifying and monitoring environmental impacts of geological carbon storage) which was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), with support from the Scottish Government. The results are contained in an Excel file. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html. Lichtschlag et al. (2014) Effect of a controlled sub-seabed release of CO2 on the biogeochemistry of shallow marine sediments, their pore waters, and the overlying water column, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583614003090 (doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10.008).

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    The QICS project (Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbons Storage) was established to improve our understanding of the potential impacts of CO2 release on the environment and to develop tools and best practice for monitoring sub-seabed CCS reservoirs. To monitor the potential impact of a CO2 leak to surficial benthic megafauna, cages of bivalves (the common mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 and the king scallop Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)) were deployed at the gas release site and at a reference site in the QICS experiment - both within Ardmucknish Bay, Oban, Scotland. Replicate individuals were sampled at six time points over a 125-day period, which spanned both the 37-day injection and recovery phases of the experiment, in order to establish impacts to molecular physiology. Samples of bivalves were also simultaneously sampled from a reference site within the bay in order to contrast changes in physiology induced by the gas release with naturally variability in the physiological performance of both species. There was no evidence of gene regulation of either selected carbonic anhydrases (CAx genes) or the alpha subunit of sodium potassium ATPAses (ATP1A genes) in individual bivalves collected from the CO2 gas release site, in either species. In the common mussel Mytilus edulis there was only evidence for changes with time in the expression of genes coding for different classes of carbonic anhydrase. It was concluded that the effects of the plume of elevated pCO2 on ion-regulatory gene transcription were negligible in both species. Pratt et al. 2015. No evidence for impacts to the molecular ecophysiology of ion or CO2 regulation in tissues of selected surface-dwelling bivalves in the vicinity of a sub-seabed CO2 release. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. DOI:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10.001. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html.