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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in this version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Data are supplied as five themes: bedrock, superficial deposits, mass movement, artificial ground and linear features. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. Superficial deposits are younger geological deposits formed during the most recent geological time; the Quaternary. These deposits rest on older rocks or deposits referred to as bedrock. The superficial deposits theme defines landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with a geological name and their deposit type or lithological composition. Mass movement describes areas where deposits have moved down slope under gravity to form landslips. These landslips can affect bedrock, superficial or artificial ground. Mass movement deposits are described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme Volume 4. However the data also includes foundered strata, where ground has collapsed due to subsidence (this is not described in the Rock Classification Scheme). Caution should be exercised with this data; whilst mass movement events are recorded in this layer, due to the dynamic nature of occurrence significant changes may have occurred since the data was released, as such it should be viewed as a snapshot in time (data should be regarded as at 2008). Artificial (man-made) theme (shown as polygons) indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the constantly changing nature of land use and re-use/redevelopment, caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. Linear features (shown as polylines) represent geological structural features e.g. faults, folds or landforms e.g. buried channels, glacial drainage channels at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). Linear features are associated most closely with the bedrock theme either as an intrinsic part of it for example marine bands or affecting it in the case of faults. However landform elements are associated with both bedrock and superficial deposits. All five data themes are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    The Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry data are derived by spatial interpolation of the Measured Urban Soil Chemistry data. A unique feature of this dataset is the inclusion for the first time of estimated bioaccessible arsenic and lead data. The Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry data indicates the estimated geometric mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Lead in topsoil derived by spatial interpolation of the Measured Urban Soil Chemistry data. Estimated bioaccessible As and Pb concentrations are derived using linear regression models of the relationship between total and bioaccessible concentrations. The Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry data can be used to assist Local Planning Authorities to identify those areas where a risk assessment may need to be carried out by developers. Comparison of this spatially referenced geochemical data with information on current or historic land use and geological information might help environmental professionals decide whether high potentially harmful element (PHE) concentrations in topsoils can be attributed to geogenic or anthropogenic sources. The dataset is based on, and limited to, an interpretation of the records in the possession of the BGS at the time the dataset was created. This dataset consists of two shape files Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry (As, Cr, Ni) and Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry (Cd, Pb).

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    Digital images of petrology rock thin sections from samples that are referenced in the BGS Petrological Collection Database (Britrocks). Two reference images are being captured for each thin section, one taken in Plane Polarized Light (PPL) and the other in Crossed Polarized Light (XPL). The Britrocks database provides an index to the BGS mineralogical & petrological collection. The computer database covers samples in the UK onshore mapping collection together with worldwide reference minerals and the Museum Reserve collection. The first England and Wales collection sample is from circa 1877, Threshthwaite Comb, Cumbria (collected by the Reverend Clifton Ward). The addition of new samples, transfer of records from registers and updates of existing records is ongoing on a regular basis. Internet access to the database is provided on the BGS web site. Capture of the Scottish Collections began February 2012. Capture of the English and foreign collections began in December 2012.

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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:25 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial and BGS has no intention to create a national coverage at this scale. Areas covered are essentially special areas of 'classic' geology and include Llandovery (central Wales), Coniston (Lake District) and Cuillan Hills (Isle of Skye). Mass movement describes areas where deposits have moved down slope under gravity to form landslips. These landslips can affect bedrock, superficial or artificial ground. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release. Mass movement deposits are described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme Volume 4. However the data also includes foundered strata, where ground has collapsed due to subsidence (this is not described in the Rock Classification Scheme). Caution should be exercised with this data; whilst mass movement events are recorded in the data due to the dynamic nature of occurrence significant changes may have occurred since the data was released. The data should therefore be regarded as a snapshot in time (as at 2008). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release.

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    Data identifies landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of artificial or man-made ground. It indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. Limited coverage within Great Britain, data exists for 167 10x10km tiles. Most primary geological mapping was carried out at 1:10 000 scale but in some areas of Wales and Scotland mapping at 1:25 000 was adopted as the norm including areas with complex geology or in some areas of classic geology. Types of artificial ground include: Disturbed ground areas of ill-defined shallow or near surface mineral workings where distinction cannot be made between made and worked ground. Infilled ground areas where original geology has been removed and then wholly or partially back filled includes waste or landfill sites. Made ground man made features including embankments and spoil heaps. Worked ground areas where ground has been removed including quarries and road cuttings. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the shifting nature of land use and re-use caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release.

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    Data identifies landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of artificial or man-made ground. It indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Types of artificial ground include: Infilled ground areas where original geology has been removed and then wholly or partially back filled includes waste or landfill sites. Landscaped ground areas where surface has been reshaped includes former sand and gravel workings for recreation and amenity use. Made ground man made features including embankments and spoil heaps. Reclaimed ground are areas of land fill, where new ground is created, usually in coastal margins, may be for example a consequence of draining of submerged wetlands and beach rebuilding. Worked ground areas where ground has been removed including quarries and road cuttings. Disturbed ground areas of ill-defined shallow or near surface mineral workings where distinction cannot be made between made and worked ground. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the constantly changing nature of land use and re-use/redevelopment caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    The British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Environment Agency (EA) has developed a web-based tool that provides an indication of whether suitable conditions exist in a given area for Open-loop Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP). The tool is developed within a GIS and maps the potential for open-loop GSHP installations (heating/cooling output >100kW) in England and Wales at the 1:250,000 scale. Data layers from this tool are available to view in this service. The data in this service is available to access for free on the basis it is only used for your personal, teaching, and research purposes provided all are non-commercial in nature as described on http://www.bgs.ac.uk/about/copyright/non_commercial_use.html. Where commercial use is required, licences are available from the British Geological Survey (BGS). Your use of any information provided by the BGS is at your own risk. BGS gives no warranty, condition or representation as to the quality, accuracy or completeness of the information or its suitability for any use or purpose. All implied conditions relating to the quality or suitability of the information, and all liabilities arising from the supply of the information (including any liability arising in negligence) are excluded to the fullest extent permitted by law.

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    The hydrogeological map indicates aquifer potential in generalised terms using a threefold division of geological formations: those in which intergranular flow in the saturated zone is dominant, those in which flow is controlled by fissures or discontinuities and less permeable formations including aquifers concealed at depth beneath covering layers. Highly productive aquifers are distinguished from those that are only of local importance or have no significant groundwater. Within each of these classes the strata are grouped together according to age or lithology. The 1:625 000 scale data may be used as a guide to the aquifers at a regional or national level, but should not be relied on for local information.

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    The BGS has been commissioned by Defra to provide guidance on what are 'normal' levels of contaminant concentrations in English soils in support of the revision of the Part 2A Contaminated Land Statutory Guidance. The domain polygons and other data produced by this work are served as WMS here.

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    Subsurface 3D geological models of aquifer and seal rock systems from two contrasting analogue sites have been created as the first step in an investigation into methodologies for geological storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers. Development of the models illustrates the utility of an integrated approach using digital techniques and expert geological knowledge to further geological understanding. The models visualize a faulted, gently dipping Permo-Triassic succession in Lincolnshire and a complex faulted and folded Devono-Carboniferous succession in eastern Scotland. The Permo-Triassic is present in the Lincolnshire model to depths of -2 km OD, and includes the aquifers of the Sherwood Sandstone and Rotliegendes groups. Model-derived thickness maps test and refine Permian palaeogeography, such as the location of a carbonate reef and its associated seaward slope, and the identification of aeolian dunes. Analysis of borehole core samples established average 2D porosity values for the Rotliegendes (16%) and Sherwood Sandstone (20%) groups, and the Zechstein (5%) and Mercia Mudstone (<10%) groups, which are favourable for aquifer and seal units respectively. Core sample analysis has revealed a complex but wellunderstood diagenetic history. Re-interpretation of newly reprocessed seismic data in eastern Scotland has significantly reduced interpretative uncertainty of aquifer and seal units at depths of up to -6 km OD in a complex faulted and folded Devonian-Carboniferous succession. Synthesis of diverse data in the 3D geological model defines a set of growth folds and faults indicative of active Visean to Westphalian dextral-strike slip, with no major changes in structural style throughout the Carboniferous, in contrast to some published tectonic models. Average 2D porosity values are 14-17% in aquifer units and <2% in the seal unit, with a ferroan dolomite cement occluding porosity at depth.