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This dataset contains the .tif (Tag Image File Format) scans of all the applied geology maps (otherwise known as thematic or environmental) and sections produced as part of "Geological background for planning and development" and preliminary sand and gravel projects carried out by the British Geological Survey for the Department of the Environment, Scottish Development Department and Scottish Office from 1975 to 1996. The maps and sections cover a number of themes for specific areas relating to the project area within the United Kingdom. Metadata on the maps, sections and project reports are in the associated excel spreadsheet. The geological line work and the methods used to produce the maps are those current at the time of production. Map scales are 1:10 000, 1:25 000 and 1:50 000. The maps have Ordnance Survey map bases and are bounded by the project area. The maps could be used for geological, engineering geological, environmental and resources research, as an information and reference resource and for inclusion in reports and papers. There are no access or usage constraints for BGS staff for BGS purposes. The scans are .tif files and can, therefore, be displayed using any suitable package. The original file size varies between 170 kb to 250 Mb. The dataset is stand-alone.
Stored in Murchison House, this dataset (FAUNGRAPHLOG_ED) is the BGS UK (North) collection of paper graphic logs from boreholes and measured natural sections, particularly in the Carboniferous of Scotland and northern England. Some 18000 of these records include hand written macrofossil occurrences and assemblages from certain (often subsequently interpreted) stratigraphical levels in the borehole or section. There is at present no separate index (either analogue or digital) to FAUNGRAPHLOG_ED but a pathway to it is FOSSLOC, the index to the Survey Collection of fossils from UK (North).
The database contains basic tabulated field data resulting from the work of the BGS East Grampians Project in the early 1980s to mid 1990s. Records include the locations of stations at which field observations were made, structural measurements and sample locations. To this end, the database provides an index to locations and structural data. However, it needs to be stated clearly that labels given to structural elements are largely subjective beyond the identification of bedding. This means that the structural data are largely unusable without a clear understanding of their context and with regard to the primary paper record on which descriptions of the observed structures are recorded. The data are held in MS ACCESS tables which are related via the Station number as the primary key. The coverage is mainly confined to the North East Grampian Highlands of Scotland. The database is currently unused and has not been added to since the end of the East Grampians Project. The station location and structural data are effectively complete. However, fields in the sample database, such as the sample stratigraphy, are largely incomplete because, at the time the data were acquired, the stratigraphy at each station was formally undefined. The most effective way of presenting and investigating the data is via GIS.
The BGS Rock Classification Scheme (RCS) is a comprehensive classification scheme for all types of rocks and unconsolidated sediments worldwide. It is intended to be used for classification of single rock samples and can be used without any knowledge of field relationships. It has been designed for use by people with a wide range of geological knowledge; from experienced professional geologists to technicians and drillers. It also allows names to be assigned according to the level of information about the sample. The system if hierarchical, ranging from very simple names such as igneous rock to highly detailed names such as mugearite, that can only be applied after chemical analysis. Rock names can consist of a root name e.g. granite and several qualifiers that impart more information e.g. grey-biotite-bearing granite. The classification scheme has been implemented as a hierarchical dictionary of codes for all rock types. The classification scheme is described in BGS Research Reports 99-02, 99-03, 99-06. The BGS Rock Classification Scheme was devised between 1993 and 1996 in response to a need from the Digital Map Production System project.
During the period from 1989 to 1997, Nirex undertook extensive geological investigations at sites near Sellafield, in Cumbria, and Dounreay, in Caithness, to examine whether or not they were suitable locations for a deep repository for radioactive waste. At Sellafield, thirty deep boreholes, and a further thirty-five shallow boreholes, were drilled. The majority of the deep boreholes were drilled to obtain continuous core and some 18.7km of rock core arose from the investigations. Two deep boreholes were drilled at Dounreay, totalling 2,286 metres of drilling. Again, much of the drilling was to obtain continuous core. In most of the boreholes a suite of data acquisition techniques were used, including: continuous coring, geophysical wireline logging, hydraulic testing, sampling and analysis of groundwaters. Mineralogical data were acquired by detailed core observation, petrographic analysis, fluid inclusion analysis and stable and radiogenic isotope studies. Testing on samples from the rock cores was undertaken to determine petrological, mineralogical, hydrogeological, geophysical and geotechnical parameters. The ownership of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) was transferred from the nuclear industry to the UK Government departments DEFRA and DTI in April 2005, and then to the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in November 2006.
Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in this version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Data are supplied as five themes: bedrock, superficial deposits, mass movement, artificial ground and linear features. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. Superficial deposits are younger geological deposits formed during the most recent geological time; the Quaternary. These deposits rest on older rocks or deposits referred to as bedrock. The superficial deposits theme defines landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with a geological name and their deposit type or lithological composition. Mass movement describes areas where deposits have moved down slope under gravity to form landslips. These landslips can affect bedrock, superficial or artificial ground. Mass movement deposits are described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme Volume 4. However the data also includes foundered strata, where ground has collapsed due to subsidence (this is not described in the Rock Classification Scheme). Caution should be exercised with this data; whilst mass movement events are recorded in this layer, due to the dynamic nature of occurrence significant changes may have occurred since the data was released, as such it should be viewed as a snapshot in time (data should be regarded as at 2008). Artificial (man-made) theme (shown as polygons) indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the constantly changing nature of land use and re-use/redevelopment, caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. Linear features (shown as polylines) represent geological structural features e.g. faults, folds or landforms e.g. buried channels, glacial drainage channels at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). Linear features are associated most closely with the bedrock theme either as an intrinsic part of it for example marine bands or affecting it in the case of faults. However landform elements are associated with both bedrock and superficial deposits. All five data themes are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.
The BGS collection of downhole CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) recordings and backup tapes for worldwide SKYLAB satellite imagery. CCTV recordings carried out down boreholes, mainly drilled for water, were undertaken by BGS for specific commercial contracts in Great Britain, and may also have associated geophysical data. The collection started in 1997, and the present holdings are 138 videos, with infrequent additions. Video recordings on other topics may be added.
Reports of site investigations produced by external organisations carried out for all forms of site investigation The reports date back to the 1950s and may contain information on boreholes, trial pits, laboratory tests and chemical analyses etc. The collection covers the whole of Great Britain with concentrations in urban areas and transportation routes. The interpreative parts of the reports are not available to public.
The London Earth data is part of a nationwide project to determine the distribution of chemical elements in the surface environment, namely Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE). London Earth focuses on the soil of the capital city, the limits of the survey being defined by the Greater London Authority (GLA) administrative boundary. Chemical elements have been determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) at the laboratories of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in Keyworth, Nottingham. These results are presented as a MS Excel file.
As an integral part of the investigations carried out at Sellafield, and to a lesser extent for the Dounreay boreholes, the cores from the boreholes were systematically examined by geologists and samples selected for detailed petrographic analysis. Thin sections were prepared from many of these samples. Some of the samples were then prepared for analysis using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction or scanning electron microscopy. Samples containing fluid inclusions were prepared as doubly polished fluid inclusion wafers. Thin sections were prepared from soil materials obtained from the investigations of the Quaternary deposits. Particular attention was given to samples of the mineralisation that was identified in the formations at Sellafield. In addition to the samples from the boreholes, there are also some samples obtained from surface exposures that were examined during the regional surveys. The samples and sections have been catalogued and incorporated into the national collection by the British Geological Survey. The ownership of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) was transferred from the nuclear industry to the UK Government departments DEFRA and DTI in April 2005, and then to the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in November 2006.