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Monthly sampling of cave drip and lake water from St Michaels Cave and Ragged Staff Cave, Gibraltar.
Friction coefficient and frictional stability (rate & state parameter) data for triaxially compressed direct shear experiments on kaolinite-rich china clay and Mg-montmorillonite fault gouges (<2micron grain size). A total of 19 raw experimental datasets are presented as detailed in the index files: 13 on kaolinite-rich china clay, and 6 on cation-exchanged Mg-Montmorillonite. The raw data files, logged at either 1 or 2Hz, comprise confining pressures, upstream and downstream fluid pressures, force experienced by the direct shear assembly during triaxial compression, and absolute volumes of the confining pressure and fluid pressure reservoirs. Data is provided as measured by gauges in the pressure vessel in Volts, and also as calculated in MPa, kN and mm3. Also presented are the outputs of MATLAB models run to simulate the rate and state parameters k, a, b, dc and f0 for each experiment, with error data presented as 2sigma and standard error values. Parameters were determined using a non-linear least-squares fitting routine with the machine stiffness treated as a fitting parameter (c.f. Noda and Shimamoto, 2009). Data were fit by a single set of state variables (a, b, dc) with a linear detrend. Also presented are the outputs of Specific Thermogravimetric Analyses on kaolinite-rich china clay and Mg-montmorillonite.
These files contain ground penetrating radar (GPR) data collected from the glacier margins and forelands of Falljökull and of Kvíárjökull, south-east Iceland, between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected using a Sensors and Software PulseEKKO Pro GPR system. For each glacier the data are stored in folders that indicate the month and year in which the surveys were conducted. Each GPR profile has a Sensors and Software GPR (.DT1) file, and associated header (.HD) and GPS (.GPS) files. The .HD files (which can be opened as text files) give the parameters and equipment used for each profile. GPS files are not available for some of the profiles collected on Falljökull in April 2013 (due to damage that occurred to the GPS linked with the PulseEKKO Pro system). For these profiles start, finish, and mid profile positions were recorded using differential GPS, and locations of these profiles are instead given by GIS shapefiles in the relevant folders. These datasets have been used in the publications listed below. Further information relating to the data collection methodology can be found therein. Phillips, Emrys; Everest, Jez; Evans, David J.A.; Finlayson, Andrew; Ewertowski, Marek; Guild, Ailsa; Jones, Lee. 2017 Concentrated, ‘pulsed’ axial glacier flow: structural glaciological evidence from Kvíárjökull in SE Iceland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 42 (13). 1901-1922. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4145 Phillips, Emrys; Finlayson, Andrew; Bradwell, Tom; Everest, Jez; Jones, Lee. 2014 Structural evolution triggers a dynamic reduction in active glacier length during rapid retreat: evidence from Falljökull, SE Iceland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 119 (10). 2194-2208. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JF003165 Phillips, Emrys; Finlayson, Andrew; Jones, Lee. 2013 Fracturing, block-faulting and moulin development associated with progressive collapse and retreat of a polar maritime glacier: Virkisjokul-Falljokull, SE Iceland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 118 (3). 1545-1561. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrf.20116 Flett, Verity; Maurice, Louise; Finlayson, Andrew; Black, Andrew; MacDonald, Alan; Everest, Jez; Kirkbride, Martin. 2017. Meltwater flow through a rapidly deglaciating glacier and foreland catchment system: Virkisjökull, SE Iceland. Hydrology Research, 48 (6). 1666-1681. https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.2017.205
This datasets contains 323 observations of borehole breakouts across and drilling induced tensile fractures from borehole imaging used to re-characterise the UK stress field orientation in 2016. This was published in the Journal of Marine and Petroleum Geology and is openly available using doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.02.012 The observations relate to 39 wells from Central and Northern England and are provided with links to screen grabs of the images for clarity. The basic well meta data is supplied along with a description of the dataset. The Images were generated in the IMAGE DISPLAY module of the Landmark RECALL software. and are supplied on an “as shown” basis. Descriptions of the tools and the techniques used are listed in the accompanying paper: KINGDON, A., FELLGETT, M. W. & WILLIAMS, J. D. O. 2016. Use of borehole imaging to improve understanding of the in-situ stress orientation of Central and Northern England and its implications for unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 73, 1-20.
This dataset provides digital spatial information on the location of mineral resources in Wales at a scale of 1:50 000. The term ‘mineral resources’ has a definition under international standards that includes both an economic and geological dimension. These data are based primarily on mapped geology with limited assessment of economics. Therefore, the term ‘mineral resources’ is used here in a broad sense. The dataset allows users to visualise the extent and distribution of mineral resources and to relate them to other forms of land-use (such as urban areas or designated environmentally sensitive areas) or to other factors (such as transport infrastructure and conservation information). The British Geological Survey (BGS) was awarded a grant from the Welsh Assembly Government Aggregates Levy Fund in 2009 to provide a comprehensive, relevant and accessible information base to enhance the sustainability of mineral resources for Wales. BGS co-funded this project through its Sustainable Mineral Solutions project. This work was completed in 2010. This dataset comprises the digital GIS files which were produced through this project. The major elements of minerals information presented on the maps are; the geological distribution of all onshore mineral resources in Wales, the location of mineral extraction sites, the recorded occurrences of metallic minerals, the recorded location of former slate quarries and significant areas of slate waste and the recorded location of historic building stone quarries. In 2020 minor revisions to geometry and attributes were made in in response to minor corrections that were required. The paper maps were not re-released with these data updates. Point data for mineral occurrence and mine site data has not been included in this revision as these data are superseded by other BGS datasets, such as the BGS BritPits database of mines and quarries. The BGS Mineral Resource data does not determine mineral reserves and therefore does not denote potential areas of extraction. Only onshore, mainland mineral resources are included in the dataset. This dataset has been produced by the collation and interpretation of mineral resource data principally held by the British Geological Survey. The mineral resource data presented are based on the best available information, but are not comprehensive and their quality is variable. The dataset should only be used to show a broad distribution of those mineral resources which may be of current or potential economic interest.
This dataset provides digital spatial information on the location of mineral resources in the central belt of Scotland at a scale of 1:50 000. The term ‘mineral resources’ has a definition under international standards that includes both an economic and geological dimension. These data are based primarily on mapped geology with limited assessment of economics. Therefore, the term ‘mineral resources’ is used here in a broad sense. The dataset allows users to visualise the extent and distribution of mineral resources and to relate them to other forms of land-use (such as urban areas or designated environmentally sensitive areas) or to other factors (such as transport infrastructure and conservation information). The British Geological Survey (BGS) was awarded a grant from the Scottish Government Aggregates Levy Fund in 2007 to provide a comprehensive, relevant and accessible information base to enhance the sustainability of mineral resources for 18 local authorities in the central belt of Scotland. BGS co-funded this project through its Sustainable Mineral Solutions project. This work was completed in March 2008. This dataset comprises the digital GIS files which were produced through this project. In 2020 minor revisions to geometry and attributes were made in in response to minor corrections that were required. The paper maps were not re-released with these data updates. The major elements of minerals information presented are the geological distribution of all mineral resources in the central belt of Scotland. The BGS Mineral Resource data does not determine mineral reserves and therefore does not denote potential areas of extraction. Only onshore, mainland mineral resources are included in the dataset. This dataset has been produced by the collation and interpretation of mineral resource data principally held by the British Geological Survey. The mineral resource data presented are based on the best available information, but are not comprehensive and their quality is variable. The dataset should only be used to show a broad distribution of those mineral resources which may be of current or potential economic interest.
High frequency (100 Hz) data from two horizontal induction coils measuring the Earth's magnetic field at the Eskdalemuir Observatory in the United Kingdom. The data covers the period from January 2018 to December 2018. Also included are examples of Matlab code and the frequency calibration files to convert to the raw data to SI units. Thumbnail spectrograms and metadata are also supplied.
The newGeoSure Insurance Product (newGIP) provides the potential insurance risk due to natural ground movement. It incorporates the combined effects of the 6 GeoSure hazards on (low-rise) buildings: landslides, shrink-swell clays, soluble rocks, running sands, compressible ground and collapsible deposits. These hazards are evaluated using a series of processes including statistical analyses and expert elicitation techniques to create a derived product that can be used for insurance purposes such as identifying and estimating risk and susceptibility. The evaluated hazards are then linked to a postcode database - the Derived Postcode Database (DPD), which is updated biannually with new releases of Ordnance Survey Code-Point® data (current version used: 2020.1). The newGIP is provided for national coverage across Great Britain (not including the Isle of Man). This product is available in a range of GIS formats including Access (*.dbf), ArcGIS (*.shp) or MapInfo (*.tab). The newGIP is produced for use at 1:50 000 scale providing 50 m ground resolution.
This dataset presents meteorological records from 3 weather stations around a glacier in southeast Iceland from 2009-2020. The weather stations were installed as part of British Geological Survey’s Glacier Observatory project, and were positioned at different altitudes close to the ice to record glacier weather. The data is in text format, and records key meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar irradiance. The weather stations were placed around Virkisjökull-Falljökull, an outlet glacier of the Öraefajökull ice cap in south east Iceland (AWS1 at 16°48'19"W, 63°57'53"N; AWS3 at 16°47'5"W, 63°58'13"N, and AWS4 at 16°48'7"W , 63°59'52"N). AWS1 was installed in September 2009, with AWS3 installed in September 2010, and AWS4 in September 2011. AWS3 and AWS4 were decommissioned in August 2018, and AWS1 in May 2020. AWS1 was located 100m from the current glacier margin at 156m a.s.l.; AWS3 sat 50m from the icefall at 444m a.s.l.; and AWS4 was situated on a clifftop overlooking the glacier at 858m a.s.l., close to the Equilibrium Line Altitude of the glacier. These were positioned at different altitudes to determine changes in weather parameters with height, thus producing for example, temperature or humidity gradients. The three stations were wirelessly linked, allowing data from the upper stations to be offloaded to the datalogger on the lower station. On-site downloads were completed using Campbell Scientific LoggerNet 4.x series software. AWS1 maintained mobile phone telemetry enabling automatic remote downloads of data from all stations on a daily basis, and remote access for software updates and health checks. Each AWS supported a slightly different sensor array, depending on the requirements of the site, and were mounted on 1.5m Campbell Scientific tripods. All of the stations were designed around a Campbell Scientific CR800 datalogger, and were solar powered, using combinations of PV panels up to 100W, supplying a Campbell Scientific 25Ah battery mounted on the tripod, plus a 110Ah gel cell battery back up in a separate housing. The data will be of use to researchers and students interested in the weather of southeast Iceland, glacier climate, local influence of glaciers on more regional synoptic weather systems, glacier climate modellers, glacier hydrologists and hydrogeologists. The BGS project was led and coordinated by Dr Jez Everest, technical support and implementation by Heiko Buxel and data Quality Assurance and checking by Dr Jon Mackay. Any periods where equipment malfunction, testing or replacement meant that no or unreliable data were collected are indicated by a ‘NAN’ value in the datasets.
Mining hazard (not including coal) summarises the location, extent and indicates the level of hazard associated with former and present underground mine workings. The dataset covers Great Britain and is published at 1: 50 000 scale. The content is derived from a range of data sources including, but not limited to the bedrock geology, extensive literature reviews of both published and unpublished documents, abandonment and mine plans, combined with a wealth of expert knowledge and experience. The release of version 8 builds on the content of previously published versions. The coverage has been expanded with the inclusion of newly identified areas and drawing on data from the BGS published Britpits (BGS database of British Pits -includes both surface and underground mineral workings) and other resources. For the first time, zones of influence have been integrated (for evaporites, oil shales and building stones) to indicate the areas surrounding mining sites which might be impacted. The data have been compiled and presented in an easy to use format to provide a national overview of the country's mining legacy. Given the long and complex mining history of Great Britain, this dataset represents the best information available at the present time (September 2020). Work continues to develop this product, which will result in the release of ad hoc updates in the future.