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    Linear features (shown as polylines) represent seven classes of geological structural features e.g. faults, folds or landforms e.g. buried channels, glacial drainage channels at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Linear features are associated most closely with the bedrock theme either as an intrinsic part of it for example marine bands or affecting it in the case of faults. However landform elements are associated with both bedrock and superficial deposits. The linear features are organised into seven main categories: Alteration area indicating zones of change to the pre-existing rocks due to the application of heat and pressure can occur round structural features such as faults and dykes. Fault where a body of bedrock has been fractured and displaced by a large scale process affecting the earth's crust. Fold where strata are bent or deformed resulting from changes or movement of the earth's surface creating heat and pressure to reshape and transform the original horizontal strata. Folds appear on all scales, in all rock types and from a variety of causes. Fossil horizons where prolific fossil assemblages occur and can be used to help establishing the order in which deposits were laid down (stratigraphy). These horizons allow correlation where sediments of the same age look completely different due to variations in depositional environment. Mineral vein where concentrations of crystallised mineral occur within a rock, they are closely associated with faulting but may occur independently. Landforms define the landscape by its surface form; these include glacial features such as drumlins, eskers and ice margins. Rock identifies key (marker) beds, recognised as showing distinct physical characteristics or fossil content. Examples include coal seams, gypsum beds and marine bands. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Superficial deposits are the youngest geological deposits formed during the most recent period of geological time, the Quaternary, which extends back about 2.58 million years from the present. They lie on top of older deposits or rocks referred to as bedrock. Superficial deposits were laid down by various natural processes such as action by ice, water, wind and weathering. As such, the deposits are denoted by their BGS lexicon name, which classifies them on the basis of mode of origin (lithogenesis) with names such as, 'glacial deposits', 'river terrace deposits' or 'blown sand'; or on the basis of their composition such as 'peat'. Most of these superficial deposits are unconsolidated sediments such as gravel, sand, silt and clay. The digital data includes attribution to identify each deposit type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volume 4). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale providing bedrock geology. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in this version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. The bedrock geology of Great Britain is very diverse and includes three broad classes based on their mode of origin: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. The data includes attribution to identify each rock type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volumes 1-3). The bedrock has formed over long periods of geological time, from the Archean eon some 7500 million years ago, to the relatively young Pliocene, 58 million years ago. The age of the rocks is identified in the data through their BGS lexicon name (published for each deposit at the time of the original survey or subsequent digital data creation). For stratified rocks i.e. arranged in sequence, this will usually be of a lithostratigraphic type. Other rock types for example intrusive igneous bodies will be of a lithodemic type. More information on the formal naming of UK rocks is available in the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    Data for Uganda includes analytical, field, isotope and borehole data. Data for Tanzania includes chemistry, field, isotope and borehole data. Borehole data from the Makutopora Wellfield is also included. This data was collected to investigate the resilience to climate change in sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania and Uganda) of intensive groundwater abstraction from weathered crystalline rock aquifer systems. The sustainability of such abstractions was investigated by examining historical aquifer responses to climate and intensive (> 1 l/s) abstraction, and investigating groundwater residence times at sites of intensive groundwater abstraction using multiple tracers. The project was DFID funded. Project partners include: University College London, the British Geological Survey and the Overseas Development Institute

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    The dataset describes the potential of superficial deposit aquifers across Scotland to sustain various levels of borehole water supply, based on four productivity classes: high; moderate to high; moderate; and a category to signify that a deposit is 'not a significant aquifer'. All superficial deposits aquifers in Scotland are assumed to have primarily intergranular groundwater flow. The dataset is a tool to indicate the location and productivity of superficial deposit aquifers across Scotland. It may have several uses, including in policy analysis and development; to prioritise aquifer and site investigations; to inform planning decisions; and to improve awareness of groundwater in general. The complexity and heterogeneity of geological formations means that the dataset is only a guide. It is designed to be used at a scale of 1:100,000, and not to assess aquifer conditions at a single point. Latest version : Superficial Aquifer Productivity Scotland version 2

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    The dataset describes the relative vulnerability of groundwater to contamination across Scotland, by means of five relative classes ranging from 1 (lowest vulnerability) to 5 (highest vulnerability). The dataset is a screening tool that can be used to show the relative threat to groundwater quality from contamination across Scotland. It can provide guidance on the vulnerability of groundwater at a regional scale, highlighting areas at comparatively higher risk of groundwater contamination, and can help indicate the degree of specific site investigation required for a new development or activity. It is designed to be used at a scale of 1:100,000 and should be regarded as a tool to aid groundwater risk assessment rather than a complete solution. Latest version: Groundwater Vulnerability Scotland version 2

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    The dataset describes the potential of bedrock aquifers across Scotland to sustain various levels of borehole water supply, and the dominant groundwater flow type in each aquifer. There are five aquifer productivity classes: very high, high, moderate, low and very low, and three groundwater flow categories: significant intergranular flow; mixed fracture/intergranular flow; and fracture flow. The dataset is a tool to indicate the location and productivity of bedrock aquifers across Scotland. It may have several uses, including in policy analysis and development; to prioritise aquifer and site investigations; to inform planning decisions; and to improve awareness of groundwater in general. The complexity and heterogeneity of geological formations means that the dataset is only a guide. It is designed to be used at a scale of 1:100,000, and not to assess aquifer conditions at a single point. Latest version: Bedrock aquifer productivity Scotland version 2

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    The BGS 3D scans store holds digital 3-dimensional scans of BGS palaeontological and petrological specimens. The data include 3-dimensional meshes and 2-dimensional images exported by the scanning hardware and software. Data are stored in software-independent 3D modelling formats such as .OBJ and .PLY. These scans are useful for research purposes, for example allowing members of the broader geoscience community to interactively view a particular specimen, and for publicising BGS specimen holdings.

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    This dataset has now been superseded, please see the Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry dataset. There are two themes to BGS urban soil chemistry, the point source dataset and the estimated dataset. The point source urban soil chemistry data comprises the locations and concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic (As). Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) in urban topsoil samples. The Estimated Urban Soil Chemistry data indicates the estimated geometric mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in topsoil derived by spatial interpolation of the Point Source Urban Soil Chemistry data. Both urban soil chemistry datasets are derived from high resolution urban soil geochemical data from the BGS Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project. The Urban Soil Chemistry data can be used to assist Local Planning Authorities to identify those areas where a risk assessment may need to be carried out by developers. Comparison of this spatially referenced geochemical data with information on current or historic land use and geological information might help environmental professionals decide whether high PHE concentrations in topsoils can be attributed to geogenic or anthropogenic sources. The dataset is based on, and limited to, an interpretation of the records in the possession of the BGS at the time the dataset was created.

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    The Marine Hard Substrate dataset maps areas of rock or hard substrate outcropping or within 0.5m of the sea-bed. The interpretation was based on a variety of data sourced from within the British Geological Survey and externally. Data consulted includes archive sample and seismic records, side scan sonar, multibeam bathymetry and Olex datasets. The distribution of hard substrate at the seabed, or within 0.5 m is important in dictating the benthic assemblages found in certain areas. Therefore, an understanding of the distribution of these substrates is of primary importance in marine planning and designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs) under the Marine and Coastal Access Act, 2009. In addition, a number of other users will value these data, including marine renewable companies, aggregate companies, the fishing and oil and gas industries. In order to address this issue it was necessary to update British Geological Survey sea-bed mapping to delineate areas where rock, boulders or cobbles are present at, or within 0.5m of the sea-bed surface. A polygon shape file showing areas of rock or hard substrate at, or within 0.5m of the sea-bed has been developed. The dataset has been created as vector polygons and are available in a range of GIS formats, including ArcGIS (.shp), ArcInfo Coverages and MapInfo (.tab). More specialised formats may be available but may incur additional processing costs.