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2014

134 record(s)
 
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    This dataset is a characterisation of the soil and rocks and the potential bulking factor (likely excavated volume increases) at Formation (local to regional) level for Great Britain. The data is categorised into Class, characteristics of similar soils and rocks and Bulking Factor, range or ranges of % bulking. The excavation of rocks or soils is usually accompanied by a change in volume. This change in volume is referred to as ‘bulking’ and the measure of the change is the ‘bulking factor’. The bulking factor is used to estimate the likely excavated volumes that will need to be moved, stored on site, or removed from site. It is envisaged that the 'Engineering Properties: Bulking of soils and rocks' dataset will be of use to companies involved in the estimation of the volume of excavated material for civil engineering operations. These operations may include, but are not limited to, resource estimation, transportation, storage, disposal and the use of excavated materials as engineered fill. It forms part of the DiGMap Plus dataset series of GIS layers which describe the engineering properties of materials from the base of pedological soil down to c. 3m depth (ie the uppermost c.2m of geology). These deposits display a variable degree of weathering, but still exhibit core engineering characteristics relating to their lithologies.

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    Airborne geophysical data acquired as part of the BGS-NERC TellusSW project (http://www.tellusgb.ac.uk/) during the second half of 2013. The survey comprised a high resolution magnetic/magnetic gradient survey combined with a multichannel (256 channel) radiometric survey. The survey was carried out using 200m (N-S) line separations at a mean elevation of 91m. Encompassing the counties of Cornwall and parts of Devon and Somerset, the survey provided 60,323 line-km of data. Digital data and derived (e.g. spatial derivatives) maps of the geophysical information are provided to facilitate spatial modelling of the soil, geological and environmental aspects of the data.

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    The dataset comprises scanned images of maps and aerial photographs of the Falkland Islands. The original maps are printers films and final paper printed originals of Falkland Islands OS maps, compiled for the Falkland Islands Government and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office by the Overseas Directorate of the Ordnance Survey. The Falkland Islands Government retains copyright interest in the maps. There are no access or usage constraints for BGS staff for BGS purposes. The field slips of geological maps were compiled by BGS under contract to the Falkland Islands Government. Copyright remains with the Falkland Islands Government , but there are no access or usage constraints for BGS staff for BGS purposes. Access to both datasets are restricted to BGS staff.

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    This dataset contains data from a marine geophysical survey which took place on 1st October 2014 in the area of Ardmucknish Bay on board the RV White Ribbon. The survey was carried out by the British Geological Survey (BGS). This was a follow up survey to the previous work carried out in this area (Surveys: 2011/4 and 2012/5, 2012/7) to monitor changes in the geometry of gas charged sediments. QICS (Quantifying and monitoring potential ecosystem impacts of geological carbon storage) was a scientific research project funded by NERC; its purpose was to improve the understanding of the sensitivities of the UK marine environment to a potential leak from a carbon capture storage (CCS) system. Sub bottom seismic profiling data were collected using an Applied Acoustics surface tow boomer (STB). Webpage www.bgs.ac.uk/QICS/.

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    Aqueous amine scrubbing was originally developed for natural gas treatment and is currently considered to be the current best available technology for post-combustion capture (PCC) of CO2 from both pulverised fuel (PF) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. A major issue is the severe thermo-oxidative degradation of alkanomaine solvents that occurs in PCC compared to natural gas processing, with the problem being compounded by the presence of acid gases that lead to the formation of heat stable salts (HSS). The accumulation of degradation products is known to reduce CO2 capture efficiency and cause excessive foaming and fouling and unacceptably high corrosion rates. Current measures to compensate for degradation involves purging spent solvent solution for reclaimation, makeup with fresh amine and the addition of anti-foam and oxidation/corrosion inhibitors. Reclaimer technologies based on distillation, ion-exchange and elecrodialysis have been developed to deal primarily with HSS where distillation has the advantage of removing both the HSS and their anions (i.e. formate and acetate). However, these technologies do not deal with the majority of the other degradation products, particularly those arising from thermal and oxidative degradation. Further, it has generally recognised that MEA forms high boiling polymeric material where N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), in particular, may continue to degrade in the presence of CO2 to form longer substituted ethlyenediamines. This proposal has been prompted by our extremely promising preliminary results that the thermal and oxidative degradation of an amine polymer (polyethyleneimine) can largely be reversed using both hydrogenation and hydrothermal (hydrous) treatments. We used non-catalytic hydropyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis treatments at temperatures below 250oC which were clearly effective in reducing oxygen functionalities without causing any degradation of the polymer chain. The challenge is to partially reduce degraded amines to hydroxyamines and also, for polymeric forms, to induce some hydrogenolysis to reduce chain lengths. Hydrous pyrolysis has the potential advantage of not directly requiring hydrogen with water being the hydrogen source. Judicious choice of catalysts provides selectivity for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis and research on amine degradation in natural gas sweetening has shown degradation products, such as N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-ethyl)piperazine and N,N,N-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, can be converted back to hydroxyamines by a hydrotreating reactions . •Directly targeting a high research priority identified by the RAPID Handbook, the proposed research aims to investigate novel reductive approaches for rejuvenating spent amine solutions from PCC plants, namely selective catalytic hydrotreatments at modest temperatures and H2 pressures and hydrous pyrolysis (hydrothermal conversion). The specific objectives are: 1.To apply the hydrogenation/ hydropyrolysis and hydrothermal treatments to individual compounds, including 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-imidazolidone (HEIA), HEEDA, .N-(2-hydroxyethyl)acetamide and N-methylformamide 2.Based on the model compound results, to conduct experiments on actual fractions from degraded amine solvents, notably the residues from distillation containing HSS and the compounds targeted above; and 3.To use the results to define the overall benefits hydrogenation, hydropyrolysis and hydrothermal treatments in solvent rejuvenation and a basis for planning the subsequent research needed to take forward these new treatments, in terms of identifying how these treatments can best be conducted continuously. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-189.

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    This Proposal focuses on the determination of the dew point of water (H2O), or “water solubility”, in impure CO2 mixtures (e.g. containing nitrogen, N2, oxygen, O2, hydrogen, H2, or mixtures of N2 + H2). The proposed work is a direct result of new findings in our project under Call 1, where we have obtained highly reproducible data for water solubility in CO2 + N2 using infrared spectroscopy and are well on the way to implementing an independent route using the so-called “Karl-Fischer” titration technique to give independent validation of our results. We have shown that the solubility of H2O is significantly reduced by the presence of even low concentrations of N2, a finding which has direct implications on anthropogenic CO2 transportation pipeline specifications and operation (e.g. internal corrosion). Such data have been identified by the Advanced Power Generation Technology Forum (APGTF) and the priorities specified in the UKCCRC Research And Pathways to Impact Delivery (RAPID) Handbook as being crucial for developing safe CO2 transportation in both the gaseous and dense phase. This Project has been designed to fill gaps in the available data, which are crucial for the safe implementation of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) because liquid water is highly acidic in the presence of excess CO2; this acidity can be increased by trace amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and this acidity will greatly accelerate corrosion in transportation pipelines and can cause further problems in sub-surface storage. Keeping water and CO2 in a single phase during transportation will largely avoid these problems. In Call 1, we set out to design and develop two complementary experimental approaches using either Infrared spectroscopy or Karl-Fischer titration. The key is now to understand the major implications for the complex range of CCS mixtures. A further complication is that the phase behaviour is highly dependent on both composition and temperature, therefore in order to fully understand the behaviour of water in the context of CCS requires further measurements. For this project we are targeting the needs outlined by National Grid in their letter for pre-combustion CCS where H2 is a likely contaminant. We have obtained preliminary data for H2 which shows that the effects may be greater than for N2, but this needs full validation. Furthermore, we propose to test the widespread assumption that the behaviour of O2 impurities will mirror that of N2. O2 is important in CCS coupled to the oxyfuel technology. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-185.

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    This is a partnership between Imperial College London and the British Geological Survey in which we combine our expertise in pore scale digital rock physics (DRP), reservoir condition Special Core Analysis (SCAL) and dynamic reservoir simulation to enhance modelling strategies for the prediction of the performance of CO2 storage sites leading to lower risk and optimised reservoir management. The proposal is at the forefront of the revolution in digital rock physics and will investigate pore-scale and core-scale processes of CO2 flow, dissolution and residual trapping in the laboratory and incorporate the results into existing and newly developed dynamic reservoir simulation models of major CO2 storage reservoirs in the UK. We leverage in-kind contributions of £213k in capital equipment and reservoir models. Building directly on a large body of experimental and simulation work, the outcomes of the proposed research will include the APGTF R&D roadmap targets of a multi-scale approach for 1.updated and risked first order CO2 storage capacity estimates , 2.an assessment of the value of different kinds of data (core samples, seismic) for strategic data acquisition targets and 3.robust strategies for reservoir management to enhance dissolution trapping and monitoring in the UK. The multiscale approach will be validated against field data from the Carbon Management Canada Field Research Station (CMC-FRS), using rock samples from the target reservoir intervals of the Medicine Hat and Belly River sandstone formations. An engagement and planning trip to the CMC-FRS will foster international engagement. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-197.

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    Increased population and increased economic activity have one important thing in common: increased energy demand. More and more, concern is mounting surrounding the broader environmental impact associated with this, and we are forced to consider the harsh reality that societies which systematically abuse and exploit their ecosystems tend not to survive. Historically, once a population had exhausted their local ecosystem, those who could, would relocate to another area, whilst those who could not tended to die out. In our globally connected world, we do not have the option of relocation; therefore it is imperative that we find a way to redress the adverse environmental impact that has historically been associated with anthropogenic economic activity. This work proposes to address one important aspect of this challenge; how to decarbonise power generation in a costeffective and environmentally benign manner. First patented in 1932, amine-based technologies for removing CO2 from the exhaust gases of large industrial processes are a well accepted and mature option. However, their deployment on a scale commensurate with the power generation industry would entail their utilisation on a scale of an entirely different order of magnitude. This step change brings with it two important challenges; the large cost resulting from the capital and ongoing operational cost associated with the deployment of CCS and also the possibility of ancillary environmental concerns resulting from the release of amines and their associated degradation products into the wider environment. This research proposes to solve this problem by using a new class of material, ionic liquids, for solvent based CO2 capture to produce carbon negative electricity - in effect taking CO2 out of the atmosphere and ultimately reversing global warming. Ionic liquids are an exciting new class of materials which, rather than being composed of molecules, are composed of individual anions and cations which interact to define their thermophysical properties. They are almost infinitely tunable as one can in effect design a task specific ionic liquid for a particular property, e.g., to absorb CO2. However, there is an important challenge associated with this; the sheer size of the potential design space. At the time of writing, there are approximately 109 potential combinations on anion and cation - far too many for design by experiment or heuristic. Thus, this research proposes to tackle this problem by performing this material design in a computational environment using a process performance index. In other words, the development and incorporation of a new theory for designing task specific ionic liquids in dynamic non-equilibrium models of a CO2 capture process and proposing new ionic liquids based on how they affect the efficiency of the power plant to which these processes are attached. The success criteria of this project are the development of a new, environmentally benign ionic liquids based CO2 capture process which reduces the cost of capture by approximately 40% in comparison with the current benchmark technology. Vital to the success of this work is the cutting edge collaboration between experimental and theoretical research groups in the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London in addition to leading research groups in the Join BioEnergy Institute in San Francisco, USA. Important outputs of this work will be new technologies for the design of task specific ionic liquids in addition to designs operational strategies for ionic liquids based CO2 capture from large fixed point emission sources. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-199.

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    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a promising means of directly lowering CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. However, concerns about the possibility of CO2 leakage are contributing to slow the widespread adoption of the technology. Research to date has failed to identify a cheap and effective means of measuring how CO2 injected underground is being stored. CO2 can be stored in four different ways: 1.Physically - where gaseous or liquid CO2 is trapped beneath an impermeable sealing cap rock. 2.Residually - where CO2 is trapped within individual and dead end spaces between rock grains (pores). 3.Solubility - where CO2 is dissolved into the formation water, which fills the pores between rock grains. 4.Mineralisation - where CO2 reacts with the host rock forming new carbonate minerals within the pores. Importantly, physically trapped CO2 is mobile and able to leak should a break form in the overlying sealing rocks. CO2 stored by the other three means is not mobile or buoyant, and hence will not migrate out of the CO2 storage site should the seal fail. It is therefore critical for reassurance to the public and regulators of CO2 storage that reliable ways to measure how much of the CO2 injected into the subsurface for storage is locked away in these secure means. Few research studies to date have quantified exactly how much CO2 is stored by residual and solubility trapping across an entire storage site. Estimations have been made from laboratory studies on rock core samples, but these only represent rocks from a small part of the CO2 storage site. Extending these results to infer how CO2 will be stored in the entire storage site is difficult as the rock cores do not represent the variation seen across the storage site. It is possible to use seismic waves to image the CO2 injected. This has proved to be a reliable means of imaging large amounts of CO2 but is unable to image thin layers of CO2 or % dissolved CO2 which makes it very difficult to quantify exactly how CO2 is being stored. Hence, there is a need to develop a reliable test which can be performed at a single CO2 injection well during assessment of a potential site for CO2 storage. This would allow the amount of CO2 which will be residually trapped in the storageformation to be determined. Such a test will lower the risk of mis-estimating the storage capacity of a site and provide a commercial operator with greater reassurance of the predictability of their proposed storage site. We will work with one of the world's leading research organisations focused on CCS, CO2CRC. They own and operate a dedicated research facility into CO2 storage, at Otway CO2 in Australia. This is uniquely suitable because in mid-2011 Otway undertook a successful experimental programme focused on determining residual trapping. Building on these experiments and in direct collaboration with CO2CRC we will use water geochemistry to establish the fate of CO2 injected into the Otway site by quantifying both the level of CO2 residually and solubility trapped and at what distance into the reservoir. This will be achieved using noble gas tracer injection and recovery, to determine residual trapping levels, and by independent oxygen stable isotope measurements to quantify the amount of CO2 dissolution. These tests will calibrate downhole geophysical techniques which CO2CRC will use. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-204.

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    Measurement and monitoring of CO2 flows across the entire CCS chain are essential to ensure accurate accounting of captured CO2 and help prevent leaking during transportation to and from storage sites. This particular R&D need has been identified as one of the highest priority areas in the latest APGTF Strategy Report and in the UKCCSRC RAPID Handbook as well as in a recent study by NEL. The need for addressing measurement uncertainty and its importance for CO2 flows is a key factor in the CCS chain. The accurate measurement of CO2 is also vital to lift the strict regulations from legislative bodies off the full deployment of CCS and create a more positive public perception towards CCS. In addition, it is imperative to investigate the flow metering aspects of CO2 to inform the legislators and regulators and to have this underpinning knowledge available to the providers of the design, build and operation of CCS plants. In this project a cutting-edge technology for the measurement of CO2 flows in CCS pipelines will be developed. The technology will incorporate multi-modal sensing and statistical data fusion techniques. General-purpose flow sensors, including Averaging Differential Pressure, ultrasonic and Coriolis together with temperature, pressure and electrical impedance transducers, will be utilised to create a prototype multi-modal sensing system. A statistical data fusion method based on Bayes' rule for combining prior and observation information will be developed to integrate the outputs of the sensors and transducers. Various statistical data fusion models will be developed off-line and optimal data fusion models will be selected for on-line implementation. Meanwhile, a dedicated CO2 mass flow reference platform will be built using precision weighing techniques and its uncertainty will be established. Extensive experimental work will be conducted on the CO2 mass reference platform after implementing the on-line statistical data fusion models. The multi-modal sensing system will then be extensively tested under controlled flow conditions which resemble practical CCS conditions. The measurement uncertainty for each selected data fusion model will be reported together with the implication of costs, which will be a very informative source for users, manufacturers and researchers. Finally, the multimodal sensing system will be scaled up with the support of the industrial partner and evaluated on their large line (>DN250) flow test facility under simulated flow conditions. Effects of impurities in the CO2 flow on the performance of the flow measurement system will also be studied. Findings from the project will be disseminated to the UKCCSRC and a wider community. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-218.