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Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. The scale of the data is 1:25 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial and BGS has no intention to create a national coverage at this scale. Areas covered are essentially special areas of 'classic' geology and include Llandovery (central Wales), Coniston (Lake District) and Cuillan Hills (Isle of Skye). Superficial deposits are the youngest geological deposits formed during the most recent period of geological time, the Quaternary, which extends back about 2.58 million years from the present. They lie on top of older deposits or rocks referred to as bedrock. Superficial deposits were laid down by various natural processes such as action by ice, water, wind and weathering. As such, the deposits are denoted by their BGS lexicon name, which classifies them on the basis of mode of origin (lithogenesis) with names such as, 'glacial deposits', 'river terrace deposits' or 'blown sand'; or on the basis of their composition such as 'peat'. Most of these superficial deposits are unconsolidated sediments such as gravel, sand, silt and clay. The digital data includes attribution to identify each deposit type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volume 4). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.
The map shows the localities where samples that form part of the BGS rock collections have been taken. Many of these samples are from surface exposure, and were collected by BGS geologists during the course of geological mapping programmes. Others are from onshore boreholes or from mine and quarry workings. The principal collections are the E (England and Wales), S (Scotland), N (continuation of the S collection) and the MR (miscellaneous). The collections, which are held at the BGS offices at Keyworth (Nottingham) and Edinburgh, comprise both hand specimens and thin sections, although in individual samples either may not be immediately available. Users may also note that the BGS holds major collections of borehole cores and hand specimens as well as over a million palaeontological samples. The Britrocks database provides an index to these collections. With over 120,000 records, it now holds data for some 70% of the entire collections, including the UK samples shown in this application as well as rocks from overseas locations and reference minerals. The collections are continuously being added to and sample records from archived registers are also being copied into the electronic database. Map coverage is thin in some areas where copying from original paper registers has not been completed. Further information on Britrocks samples in these and other areas can be obtained from the Chief Curator at the BGS Keyworth (Nottingham) office or from the rock curator at the BGS Murchison House (Edinburgh) office.
The 1:250k Geological Maps of Northern Ireland comprise the Superficial Deposits Map (Drift, 1991) and the Bedrock Map (Solid Geology, 1997). These maps identify landscape areas based on their lithology. The scale of the maps is 1:250 000 and provides a simplified interpretation of the geology that may be used as a guide at a regional level, but should not be relied on for local geology. Superficial deposits are younger geological deposits formed during the most recent geological time; the Quaternary. These deposits rest on older rocks or deposits referred to as bedrock. The superficial deposits theme defines landscape areas with a geological name and their deposit-type or lithological composition. The Superficial map shows the deposits within the extent of the six Counties of Northern Ireland. The Bedrock map comprises the bedrock geology and contains dykes and geological faults. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy of the rocks. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. Dykes defines small, narrow areas of a specific type of bedrock geology; that is igneous rocks which have been intruded into the landscape at a later date than the surrounding bedrock. Geological faults occur where a body of bedrock has been fractured and displaced by large scale processes affecting the earth's crust (tectonic forces). The Bedrock map shows the main bedrock geological divisions in Northern Ireland and coverage extends to the west into the Republic of Ireland. The printed map includes a stratigraphic column. Digital datasets have been derived from the maps and comprise three layers. 1. Superficial polygons, 2. Bedrock polygons and 3. Linear features. Attribute tables describe the polygon features. These data are generalised and superseded by the 1:10k Geological Maps of Northern Ireland.
This layer of the map based index (GeoIndex) providex an index to 17,500 borehole rock samples (drillcore) from the Mineral Reconnaissance Programme (MRP) and related studies. The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded BGS to provide baseline information on areas prospective for the occurrence of metallic minerals in Great Britain. This programme, known as the MRP, ran continuously from 1973 to 1997 and covered particular locations across Great Britain. It was designed to stimulate private sector exploration and to encourage the development of Britain's indigenous mineral resources. Under the programme a number of boreholes were drilled to gather information.
The BGS Seabed Sediments 250k dataset is vector data is vector data which reflects the distribution of seabed substrate types of the UK and some of its adjacent waters at 1:250,000 scale. This comprehensive product provides a digital compilation of the paper maps published by BGS at the same scale, as well as, additional re-interpretations from regional geological studies. The seabed is commonly covered by sediments that form a veneer or thicker superficial layer of unconsolidated material above the bedrock. These sediments are classified based on their grain size reflecting the environment in which were deposited. This information is important to a range of stakeholders, including marine habitat mappers, marine spatial planners, offshore industries (in particular, the dredging and aggregate industries). This dataset was primarily based on seabed grab samples of the top 0.1 m, combined with cores, dredge samples and sidescan sonar acquired during mapping surveys since the early 1970s. The variations in data density will be reflected in the detail of the mapping.
In 1992, BIRPS joined with the Indonesian Marine Geological Institute to record two long multichannel normal-incidence reflection profiles, one of which is DAMAR, the other TIMOR, and one short profile (API) close to the volcano Gunung Api. The survey provides a modern analogue to tectonics hypothesized to have occurred across the Iapetus suture zone of northern England 450-400 Ma. The Banda Arc of Indonesia near the island of Timor is widely recognized as the premier example of the active subduction of continental crust and lithosphere beneath oceanic lithosphere. The crossing of a modern island arc and close passage to active volcanoes was intended to image reflections associated with magma in the crust and uppermost mantle.
This layer of the map based index (GeoIndex) shows sites where regularly monitored rest water level data are available, usually covering a long time period. The data shows seasonal fluctuations in the water table and responses to periods of high or low rainfall.
Linear features (shown as polylines) represent six classes of geological structural features e.g. faults, folds or landforms e.g. buried channels, glacial drainage channels at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). Limited coverage within Great Britain, data exists for 167 10x10km tiles. Most primary geological mapping was carried out at 1:10 000 scale but in some areas of Wales and Scotland mapping at 1:25 000 was adopted as the norm including areas with complex geology or in some areas of classic geology. Linear features are associated most closely with the bedrock theme either as an intrinsic part of it for example marine bands or affecting it in the case of faults. However landform elements are associated with both bedrock and superficial deposits. The linear features are organised into seven main categories: Alteration area, indicating a zone of change to the pre-existing rocks due to the application of heat and pressure that can occur round structural features such as faults and dykes. Fault, where a body of bedrock has been fractured and displaced by a large scale process affecting the earth's crust. Fold, where strata are bent or deformed resulting from changes or movement of the earth's surface creating heat and pressure to reshape and transform the original horizontal strata. Folds appear on all scales, in all rock types and from a variety of causes. Fossil horizons, where prolific fossil assemblages occur and can be used to help establish the order in which deposits were laid down (stratigraphy). These horizons allow correlation where sediments of the same age look completely different due to variations in depositional environment. Landforms, define the landscape by its surface form; these include glacial features such as drumlins, eskers and ice margins. Mineral vein, where concentrations of crystallised mineral occur within a rock, they are closely associated with faulting but may occur independently. Rock, identifies key (marker) beds, recognised as showing distinct physical characteristics or fossil content. Examples include coal seams, gypsum beds and marine bands. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence. Another batch of tiles was added to the data in 2012 to bring the total to 167 for this version 2 release.
Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:250 000 scale providing a generalised geology. Onshore coverage is provided for all of England, Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Data are supplied as two themes: bedrock and linear features (faults), there is no superficial, mass movement or artificial theme available onshore at this scale. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. This means rock bodies are arranged into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. Data identifying linear features (shown as polylines) represent geological faults at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). Geological faults occur where a body of bedrock has been fractured and displaced by large scale processes affecting the earth's crust (tectonic forces). The faults theme defines geological faults (shown as polylines) at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.
The Quaternary deposits thickness dataset is a digital geological map across the bulk of the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS), for areas up to a water depth of 200m, which shows the thickness of the deposits over bedrock in three categories: <5m, 5-50m, and >50m Quaternary cover. These depth bands were picked because they represent the horizons that have impact on offshore infrastructure deployment. The map is derived from (unpublished) BGS 1:1000000 scale Quaternary digital geological mapping. The map was produced in 2014 in collaboration with, and co-funded by, The Crown Estate as part of a wider commissioned project to assess seabed geological constraints on engineering infrastructure across the UKCS. The data are held by the BGS as an ESRI ArcGIS Shapefile.