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    Fault risk remains a key parameter in evaluating the potential for trapping CO2 in the subsurface, yet very little is known about the conditions under which CO2 and CO2/hydrocarbon mixtures are retained by faults. The project will investigate the roles and properties of faults in their capacity to retain CO2. Natural and engineered accumulations of hydrocarbon and CO2-hydrocarbon mixtures will be examined across a wide self-similar province (to minimize geological variability) to develop a knowledge base of fault flow properties. Fault geometries, orientations, seismic attributes, proven vertical trapping and lateral pressure retention values and column-heights will be documented. High-quality data-rich examples will be selected for analysis with established software tools to predict and calibrate CO2 column height and pressure retention. Differences between prediction and observation will be reconciled by checking site-specific geology and optimising the petrophysical property values assigned to the faults, reservoir, seals and fluids (within realistic ranges) to produce an understandable pragmatic and calibrated fit. The fault properties knowledge-base and the newly calibrated tools will be applied to selected key reservoirs from the ETI UK Storage Assessment Project (UKSAP). This will provide improved and evidence-based assessment of storage in regional UK North Sea aquifers such as the Bunter Sandstone, Forties, Tay and Captain. These are some of the largest and promising early developments for storage and are vital to reducing storage costs via multi-user storage. The Bunter Sandstone has 8Gt CO2 unrisked capacity - but only 1Gt may be considered viable because of fault risk. The Captain, Forties and Tay sandstones total 11.5Gt CO2 unrisked capacity, of which only 1Gt may be currently considered viable. The impact of the research will be to upgrade parts of the UKSAP assessment and to assist the development of the large capacity element in these formations that does have perceived fault risk. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14.

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    A key element of risk assessment for the geological storage of CO2 offshore is the monitoring of transport of leaks from the subsurface via shallow sediments in the marine environment, including its effect on the ecosystem. In 2012, the NERC-funded QICS project constructed the first marine in situ controlled sub-seabed release facility for CO2 in the world in Ardmucknish Bay, Oban when 4.2 tonnes of CO2 was injected. There is significant international interest in this unique facility and the project provides an opportunity for the UK to consolidate its leadership in environmental monitoring and impact studies for CCS. This scoping project will explore the viability and potential scientific goals for a follow on project, with the capability of delivering useful knowledge at the start of the UK CCS commercialisation program. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31.

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    We aim to de-risk the development of the major potential CO2 storage reservoirs in the UK sector of the Northern and Central North Sea by developing our understanding of the geometry and properties of the overburden above the potential reservoirs (including their seals), and by developing an understanding of the likely hydraulic connectivity in the reservoirs, surrounding strata and overburden and hence the likely flow paths for CO2 and formation brine within and between them. These reservoirs are some of the most widespread and internally hydraulically well-connected reservoirs on the UK Continental Shelf and appear to have excellent potential for high injectivity, large capacity without excessive pressure rise and, in some cases, good containment. Consequently, they promise to be of great significance if CCS becomes a major greenhouse gas mitigation technology in the UK. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30.

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    The project will investigate the impacts of real flue gas and vent gas recycling on the combustion performance, emissions, ignition and flame stability of oxy-coal combustion by means of 250kW PACT facility testing and comprehensively validated CFD modelling, and to assess various flue gas recycling scenarios and the benefits of vent gas recycling by process simulation. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-27.

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    This poster was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14. The data consists of a poster presented at the UKCCSRC biannual meeting in Cranfield, April 20th 2015. The poster describes an overview of work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. Three main work strands are briefly described: 1) The Captain Sandstone aquifer is studied for the geomechanical integrity of faults, 2) Shallow gas accumulations in the Netherlands sector of the Southern North Sea provide an opportunity to study their coincidence with faulting while commonalities in the nature of the faults provide an indication of factors that might lead to fault leakage in CO2 storage sites. 3) The Fizzy gas field which is naturally rich in CO2 is studied for its fault seal potential as a natural analogue for fault-bounded storage sites.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, North Sea aquifer mapping, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 22.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Chemical Looping for low-cost Oxygen Production, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 22.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-39.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Mixed Matrix Membrane Preparation for PCC, was presented at the Nottingham Biannual, 04.09.13. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-36.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Mixed Matrix Membrane Preparation for PCC, was presented at the Sheffield Biannual, 8.04.13. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-36.

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    The NERC-funded QICS controlled CO2 release experiment (located offshore Oban, Scotland) mimics the formation of a new CO2 seep in the marine environment. At the site, CO2 is injected at an onshore wellhead, and a stainless steel pipe transports the CO2 under the seabed. Approximately 350 m offshore, the CO2 is released through a perforated screen into the 12 metres of overlying marine sediment, which is at approximately 10 metres water depth. During spring/summer 2012, 4.2 tonnes of CO2 was released at the QICS experimental site. In order to establish stakeholder views on the research priorities for the site, consultations for three 'audiences' were performed via online questionnaires. These 'audiences' were: 1. QICS research community: Researchers actively involved in the QICS project were asked to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire aimed to gather participants' reflections of the QICS CO2 injection experiment in Summer 2012, and also to consult on the scientific priorities for possible future activity at the site. 2. CCS (storage) research community: The international CCS research community (specifically, researchers working on aspects of CO2 storage) were consulted via an online questionnaire distributed by the IEAGHG storage network mailing list in June 2013. The survey aimed to gather their reflections of the QICS project, and to consult on the scientific priorities for possible future activity at the site. The survey had 24 respondents with a broad range of expertise and representing both industry and research organisations from 10 countries. 3. Technology industry: Technology industries were consulted via an online questionnaire. The survey aimed to gather consult on the scientific priorities for science and technology development at possible future activity at the site, and also to scope potential interest from technology developers. For each of these consultations there is a report (presenting a synthesis of the survey responses) and also the dataset for all three surveys. All of these files are confidential. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31.