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2013

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    BGS offshore marine products are made available to view via this web map service. The 1:250 000 scale offshore geological maps in the UTM series (Universal Transverse Mercator projection) are available digitally as two themes: bedrock geology (DigRock250) and sea-bed sediments (DigSBS250). Marine Hard Substrate Dataset (DiGHardSubstrate250k) is also made available via this service.

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    Data from the British Geological Survey's GeoIndex Offshore (cultural data) theme are made available for viewing here. GeoIndex is a website that allows users to search for information about BGS data collections covering the UK and other areas world wide. Access is free, the interface is easy to use, and it has been developed to enable users to check coverage of different types of data and find out some background information about the data. More detailed information can be obtained by further enquiry via the web site: www.bgs.ac.uk/geoindex.

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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:50 000 scale. Onshore coverage is provided for all of England, Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Data are supplied as five themes: bedrock, superficial deposits, mass movement, artificial ground and linear features. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. Superficial deposits are younger geological deposits formed during the most recent geological time; the Quaternary. These deposits rest on older rocks or deposits referred to as bedrock. The superficial deposits theme defines landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with a geological name and their deposit-type or lithological composition. Mass movement describes areas where deposits have moved down slope under gravity to form landslips. These landslips can affect bedrock, superficial or artificial ground. Mass movement deposits are described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme Volume 4. However this data also includes foundered strata, where ground has collapsed due to subsidence (this is not described in the Rock Classification Scheme). Caution should be exercised with this data; historically BGS has not always recorded mass movement events and due to the dynamic nature of occurrence significant changes may have occurred since the data was released. Artificial (man-made) theme (shown as polygons) indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the constantly changing nature of land use and re-use/redevelopment, caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. Linear features (shown as polylines) represent geological structural features e.g. faults, folds or landforms e.g. buried channels, glacial drainage channels at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). Linear features are associated most closely with the bedrock theme either as an intrinsic part of it for example marine bands or affecting it in the case of faults. Landform elements are associated with both bedrock and superficial deposits. All five data themes are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    Data identifies landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of artificial or man-made ground. It indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. Types of artificial ground include: Disturbed ground areas of ill-defined shallow or near surface mineral workings where distinction cannot be made between made and worked ground. Infilled ground areas where original geology has been removed and then wholly or partially back filled includes waste or landfill sites. Landscaped ground areas where surface has been reshaped includes former sand and gravel workings for recreation and amenity use. Made ground man made features including embankments and spoil heaps. Worked ground areas where ground has been removed including quarries and road cuttings. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the shifting nature of land use and re-use caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. The scale of the data is 1:50 000 scale providing bedrock geology. Onshore coverage is provided for all of England, Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. The bedrock geology of Great Britain is very diverse and includes three broad classes based on their mode of origin: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. The data includes attribution to identify each rock type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volumes 1-3 ). The bedrock has formed over long periods of geological time, from the Archean eon some 7500 million years ago, to the relatively young Pliocene, 58 million years ago. The age of the rocks is identified in the data through their BGS lexicon name (published for each deposit at the time of the original survey or subsequent digital data creation). For stratified rocks i.e. arranged in sequence, this will usually be of a lithostratigraphic type. Other rock types for example intrusive igneous bodies will be of a lithodemic type. More information on the formal naming of UK rocks is available in the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition, using visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

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    From being a metal with very limited natural distribution,indium (In) has recently become disseminated throughout the human society. Little is know of how In compounds behave in the natural environment, but recent medical studies link exposure to In compounds to elevated risk of respiratory disorders. Animal tests suggest that exposure may lead to more widespread damage in the body, notably testicular cancer. In this paper, we investigate the solubility of the most widely used In compound, indium-tin oxide (ITO) in simulated lung and gastric fluids in order to better understand the potential pathways for metals to be introduced into the bloodstream. Our results show significant potential for release of In and tin (Sn) in the deep parts of the lungs (artificial lysosomal fluid) and digestive fluids, while the solubility in the upper parts of the lungs (the respiratory tract or tracheobronchial tree, simulated by Gamble's solution) is very low. Our study confirms that ITO is likely to remain as solid particles in the upper parts of the lungs, but that particles are likely to at dissolve in the deep lungs. Considering the prolonged residence time of inhaled particles in the deep lung and the high solubility of ITO in artificial lysosomal fluids, the environment of the deep lungs is likely to provide the major route for assimilation of In and Sn from inhaled ITO nano- and microparticles. Digestion is likely to also lead to assimilation through dissolution in the stomach and interaction with digestive enzymes in the pancreatic juice. However, this route is less likely to lead to substantial assimilation because of the much shorter residence times of particles in the digestive system.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 22.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    The data consists of a poster presented at the twelfth 'Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies' conference (GHGT-12), held in Austin, Texas, on the 6-9th October 2014. The psoter describes work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. The geomechanical and fault seal analysis of the naturally CO2-rich Fizzy Field in the UK Southern North Sea is investigated.

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    The data consists of a short project update for the 2015/16 annual report and the final report for the project. The update describes work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. The report details the latter stages of the project, the final conclusions and results dissemination throughout the project.

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    This project will determine the dew point of water, or "water solubility", in impure CO2 mixtures (e.g. containing N2 and H2). At present, key data for defining water levels have not been determined. The data are important because liquid water is highly acidic in the presence of excess CO2; this acidity can be increased by trace amounts of SO2 and H2S and acidity will greatly accelerate corrosion. This research will provide the first accurate data for CO2 transportation systems, which can be used to develop accurate equations of state and define more robust pipeline specifications. These in turn can be applied to inform cost benefit analyses on the additional costs on the pipeline material and construction balanced against the cost of purification and the needs of safety. The research will provide critical physical property data to enable the safe and cost effective transportation of CO2. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-21.