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2013

125 record(s)
 
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    Fault risk remains a key parameter in evaluating the potential for trapping CO2 in the subsurface, yet very little is known about the conditions under which CO2 and CO2/hydrocarbon mixtures are retained by faults. The project will investigate the roles and properties of faults in their capacity to retain CO2. Natural and engineered accumulations of hydrocarbon and CO2-hydrocarbon mixtures will be examined across a wide self-similar province (to minimize geological variability) to develop a knowledge base of fault flow properties. Fault geometries, orientations, seismic attributes, proven vertical trapping and lateral pressure retention values and column-heights will be documented. High-quality data-rich examples will be selected for analysis with established software tools to predict and calibrate CO2 column height and pressure retention. Differences between prediction and observation will be reconciled by checking site-specific geology and optimising the petrophysical property values assigned to the faults, reservoir, seals and fluids (within realistic ranges) to produce an understandable pragmatic and calibrated fit. The fault properties knowledge-base and the newly calibrated tools will be applied to selected key reservoirs from the ETI UK Storage Assessment Project (UKSAP). This will provide improved and evidence-based assessment of storage in regional UK North Sea aquifers such as the Bunter Sandstone, Forties, Tay and Captain. These are some of the largest and promising early developments for storage and are vital to reducing storage costs via multi-user storage. The Bunter Sandstone has 8Gt CO2 unrisked capacity - but only 1Gt may be considered viable because of fault risk. The Captain, Forties and Tay sandstones total 11.5Gt CO2 unrisked capacity, of which only 1Gt may be currently considered viable. The impact of the research will be to upgrade parts of the UKSAP assessment and to assist the development of the large capacity element in these formations that does have perceived fault risk. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14.

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    This project will tackle one of the key technical challenges facing the development of commercially viable CO2 transport networks: modelling the phase behaviour of impure carbon dioxide, under the conditions typically found in carbon capture from power stations, and in high-pressure (liquid phase) and low-pressure (gas phase) pipelines. Models for phase behaviour are known as equations of state (EoS). EoS vary in their mathematical form, accuracy, region of validity and computational complexity. Because different applications have different requirements, there is no single EoS that is ideal for all applications. This project will use cutting-edge computer algorithms to automatically reparameterise EoS for CCS modelling. This flexible technique will allow a user to specify their requirements and re-derive model parameters matched to their needs. Our algorithms will directly produce functional forms for EoS from experimental data, thus fully automating the derivation of EoS. This will enable users to rapidly produce bespoke EoS that are tailored to their particular application, and will enable these models to continually evolve as new measurements become available, ensuring that experimental advances are rapidly converted into improved CCS modelling and, ultimately, better performance and efficiency of real CCS processes. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-22.

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    Conventional power generation in the UK faces a significant challenge in the face of decarbonising and maintaining a reliable, secure and cost effective electricity supply. The requirement for fossil-fuel based systems to integrate smoothly with CCS technologies has led to the realistic consideration of oxyfuel based generating plant for CCGT-CCS processes. For CCS to become more technically and economically feasible, it has been suggested that the CO2 scrubbing component of the CCS process will work more effectively if the CO2 concentrations in the exhaust gas were higher. Hence, enhancement of oxygen in the combustion process and the enhancement of CO2 concentration in the plant exhaust via Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) can dramatically increase the net efficiency of CO2 scrubbers. Whilst oxyfuel and EGR are known to be potentially very promising technologies for integration with CCGT-CCS processes, there exists a significant lack of fundamental data on the design and reliable operation of industrial burner systems with this technology. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-26.

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    A key element of risk assessment for the geological storage of CO2 offshore is the monitoring of transport of leaks from the subsurface via shallow sediments in the marine environment, including its effect on the ecosystem. In 2012, the NERC-funded QICS project constructed the first marine in situ controlled sub-seabed release facility for CO2 in the world in Ardmucknish Bay, Oban when 4.2 tonnes of CO2 was injected. There is significant international interest in this unique facility and the project provides an opportunity for the UK to consolidate its leadership in environmental monitoring and impact studies for CCS. This scoping project will explore the viability and potential scientific goals for a follow on project, with the capability of delivering useful knowledge at the start of the UK CCS commercialisation program. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31.

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    We aim to de-risk the development of the major potential CO2 storage reservoirs in the UK sector of the Northern and Central North Sea by developing our understanding of the geometry and properties of the overburden above the potential reservoirs (including their seals), and by developing an understanding of the likely hydraulic connectivity in the reservoirs, surrounding strata and overburden and hence the likely flow paths for CO2 and formation brine within and between them. These reservoirs are some of the most widespread and internally hydraulically well-connected reservoirs on the UK Continental Shelf and appear to have excellent potential for high injectivity, large capacity without excessive pressure rise and, in some cases, good containment. Consequently, they promise to be of great significance if CCS becomes a major greenhouse gas mitigation technology in the UK. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30.

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    The project will three-dimensionally image hydraulically conductive features in the reservoir, caprock and overburden of an active CO2 injection site: the Aquistore site, Canada. Our research will provide important information on potential migration pathways within the storage complex to inform future monitoring strategies at the Aquistore site and at future storage sites. We will monitor micro-seismic events prior to, and during, CO2 injection using a three-component nanoseismic surface monitoring array which will complement data collected by the existing geophone network at the site. This analysis can be used to provide deep focussed monitoring information on permeability enhancement near the injection point. As injection continues it will also enable imaging of any flowing features within the caprock. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-19.

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    The project will investigate the impacts of real flue gas and vent gas recycling on the combustion performance, emissions, ignition and flame stability of oxy-coal combustion by means of 250kW PACT facility testing and comprehensively validated CFD modelling, and to assess various flue gas recycling scenarios and the benefits of vent gas recycling by process simulation. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-27.

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    While chemical looping (combustion, CLC) is a promising technology for carbon capture, however many questions still remain as to its applicability at an industrial scale. In Chemical looping combustion a metal oxide is shuttled back and forth between a fuel and air reactor, picking up oxygen in the air reactor and transferring it to the fuel reactor. The fuel is never mixed with the nitrogen from the air, so a stream of CO2 and H2O is produced directly from the fuel reactor; this potentially makes the integrated power production and CO2 capture system highly efficient. Most CLC and CLOU schemes envisage using fluidised beds in which the solid fuel is intimately mixed with the oxygen carrier, or mixing of the solid fuel particles. This project aims to push forward chemical looping within the UK and integrates both experimental work and theoretical analysis to result in the first large-scale demonstration of CLC within the UK. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-39.

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    This project will produce and disseminate the first design and operating guidelines for the flexible operation of CCS pipeline networks. The research will explore how CCS pipeline networks can react effectively to short, medium and long term variations in the availability and flow of CO2 from capture plants, as well as responding to the constraints imposed on the system by the ability (or otherwise) of CO2 storage facilities to accept variable flow. The work will develop relevant scenarios for modelling the likely variability of CO2 flow in a CCS pipeline network, develop hydraulic models of CO2 behaviour, engage stakeholders in the process through practitioner workshops, and deliver guidelines to the industry and other interested stakeholders. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    This poster was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14. The data consists of a poster presented at the UKCCSRC biannual meeting in Cranfield, April 20th 2015. The poster describes an overview of work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. Three main work strands are briefly described: 1) The Captain Sandstone aquifer is studied for the geomechanical integrity of faults, 2) Shallow gas accumulations in the Netherlands sector of the Southern North Sea provide an opportunity to study their coincidence with faulting while commonalities in the nature of the faults provide an indication of factors that might lead to fault leakage in CO2 storage sites. 3) The Fizzy gas field which is naturally rich in CO2 is studied for its fault seal potential as a natural analogue for fault-bounded storage sites.