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2015

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    Posters and presentations from the UKCCSRC Call 1 Project: Mixed matrix membranes for post combustion carbon capture (Mar 2013 to Dec 2015). Membrane processes are a promising alternative to the more classical post-combustion capture technologies due to the reduced maintenance of the process, the absence of dangerous solvents and their smaller footprint. This project aims at supporting the development of new mixed matrix membranes for post-combustion applications. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are composite materials formed by embedding inorganic fillers into a polymeric matrix in order to overcome the upper bound and combine the characteristics of the two solid phases: mechanical properties, economical processing capabilities and permeability of the polymer and selectivity of the filler. Despite several studies on the concept, the interactions between the two phases and their effect on the transport properties are not well understood. Yet, this fundamental knowledge is crucial in order to design the reliable materials needed for real-world-applications.

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    In this study, two strategies, thermal pretreatment and chemical doping, were investigated as a method of improving the residual carrying capacity of Longcliffe and Havelock limestone for calcium looping systems. Four parameters were varied during thermal pretreatment: temperature (900-1100 degrees C), time (3-12 hr), gas composition (0-100 % CO2 balanced in N2) and particle size (90-355 micrometre). After pre-calcination, the sorbents were subjected to 20 carbonation-calcination cycles performed in a thermographic analyser (TGA) to monitor any signs of sorbent improvement. The degradation of sorbent activity was modelled using the decay equation suggested by Grasa and Abanades (2006). Both Longcliffe and Havelock samples showed self-reactivation when pretreated under CO2, however this did not result in a greater carrying capacity after 20 carbonation/calcination cycles compared to the untreated limestone. For chemical doping, Longcliffe doped using 0.167 mol % HBr via quantitative wet impregnation method resulted in an increase in residual carrying capacity of 27.4 % after thermal pre-treatment under CO2 when compared to the untreated but doped limestone, assuming self-reactivation continued as modelled. When Longcliffe was doped and then pretreated under pure N2, the limestone showed self-reactivation, which was not seen in the undoped sorbent when also pretreated under N2. Thus, the success of pretreatment may be dependent on the chemical composition of the limestone. Finally, BET surface area and BJH pore volume analysis was used to understand the changes in the sorbents' morphologies. The closure of the mesopores (dpore<150 nm) after the pretreatment was correlated to the self-reactivation in the subsequent cycles.

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    Advances in our understanding of the Earth's climate system will rely on our ability to link high-resolution sedimentary archives from the oceans, ice-cores and terrestrial sequences, and to interpret these records in the context of novel Earth system modeling approaches. Few places exist in the world where sufficiently detailed and unambiguous marine-ice-terrestrial linkages are possible. One challenge for IODP, and the broader drilling community in general, is to identify and recover marine, ice and terrestrial sequences from appropriate locations and with adequate temporal resolution to study processes of the integrated climate system. One such region is the southwest Iberian Margin where it has been demonstrated that the surface oxygen isotopic record could be correlated precisely to temperature variations (i.e., d18O) in Greenland ice cores. By comparison, the benthic d18O signal in the same core resembled the temperature record from Antarctica. Moreover, the narrow continental shelf and proximity of the Tagus River results in the rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment off Portugal, thereby providing a record of atmospheric changes and permitting correlation of marine and ice core records to European terrestrial sequences. This is the only place in the ocean where such marine-ice-terrestrial correlations have been demonstrated unambiguously. It is therefore highly desirable to extend the Iberian Margin record to encompass the full range of Plio-Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles by drilling with the JOIDES Resolution (JR). Towards this end, Proposal 771-Full was submitted to IODP by an international group of 16 proponents led by the UK. The proposal was well received and reviewed by the Science Steering and Evaluation Panel (SSEP), but the IODP Site Survey Panel (SSP) identified major inadequacies in the quality of the seismic data: "The panel raised several concerns on the suitability of the submitted data with regard to its appropriateness, both to image the target properly and with regard to the site location. The panel also discussed the need for 2 high-resolution lines and considered that places where Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) or closely spaced faults were present deserved these 2 high-resolution lines." This proposal requests 25 days of ship time to collect the necessary seismic and sediment data needed to meet the SSP requirements and recommendations. Several "stand-alone" scientific objectives are also proposed related to the modern hydrography and sedimentary processes on the southwest Iberian Margin, and calibration of palaeoceanographic proxies used for reconstructing past changes in deep-water circulation. This value-added science will make effective use of ship time and contribute key information needed to interpret the downcore records to be obtained by IODP.

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    Chironomid calibration data set for tropical South America. Surface sediment samples from 59 Andean lakes across Bolivia (15 lakes), Peru (32 lakes), and Ecuador (12 lakes) over an altitudinal gradient from 150m above sea level to 4655m above sea level between 0-17 degrees South and 64-78 degrees West. Laguna Pindo is a small shallow lake on the Ecuadorian Andes (1 27.132 degrees South and 78 04.847 degrees West, 1248m above sea level). See published paper, Inferring late-Holocene climate in the Ecuadorian Andes using a chironomid-based temperature inference model by Frazer Matthews-Bird, Stephen J. Brooks, Philip B. Holden, Encarni Montoya, and William D. Gosling (2016), . Clim. Past, 12, 1263-1280, 2016. doi:10.5194/cp-12-1263-2016

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    Two datasets containing multiple diversity metrics of planktonic foraminifera. Recent data is from MARGO (Multiproxy approach for the reconstruction of the glacial ocean surface); Eocene data is from NEPTUNE (a relational database of microfossil occurrence records from DSDP and ODP publications), supplemented by literature searches. These data are related to Fenton et al (2016) Phil Trans (DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0224) Data used in Fenton et al (2016) Environmental predictors of diversity in Recent planktonic foraminifera as recorded in marine sediments. The original data is from the MARGO database (Kucera, 2007)

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    Stratigraphic and ecological data from tidal marsh sites in south-central Chile. Includes stratigraphy, diatom assemblages and radiocarbon dates from fossil cores and diatom assemblages from modern tidal marsh samples. Data were collected to provide evidence for multiple great earthquakes in south-central Chile, and enable the reconstruction of vertical land-level changes associated with these earthquakes. Data are from tidal marsh sites within the 1960 earthquake rupture area along the Chilean subduction zone (37.5 - 46 degrees South).

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    The Terra-correlator: A computing facility for massive real-time data assimilation in environmental science. Two Application Framework Papers: 1) Report on Terra-Correlator Application Framework. 2) Use Cases and Requirements for Terra-Correlator Application Framework, plus the codes used for the work done.

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    Log file and GSAS data files for synchrotron study of NaMnF3. Diffraction patterns from synchrotron experiments on NaMnF3. NERC grant: Understanding the D' zone: novel fluoride analogues to MgSiO3 post perovskite NERC grant abstract: The thermal boundary layers of a convecting system control many aspects of its style of convection and thermo-chemical history. For the silicate Earth these boundary layers are the lithosphere, whose low temperature and high rigidity induces slab-style downwellings, and the D' region on the mantle side of the core-mantle-boundary (CMB). The D' region is the source of plume-style convection and regulates heat exchange from the core to the silicate Earth. The lower thermal boundary is made more complex by the existance of a phase transition in the most common mineral in the lower mantle (magnesium-silicate perovskite) which changes the properties of the D' region at the CMB. Unfortunately, most of these properties cannot be measured at the extreme pressures (120 GPa) of stabilisation of the post-perovskite phase. The best chance of constraining them is through a combination of measurements on low-pressure analogue materials (which have the same crystal structure but a different chemical composition) and ab initio simulations of both the analogue and natural systems. We have recently developed a set of ABF3 analogues whose properties are much more similar to MgSiO3 than are those of the CaBO3 analogues currently in use. We propose, therefore, to use these improved fluoride analogues to determine the properties of post-perovskite which control the dynamics of D' (phase diagram, pressure-temperature-volume relations, viscosity, slip systems and thermal diffusivity). These measurements will allow models to be developed which accurately predict the behaviour of the lower thermal boundary layer of the mantle. This will place coinstraints on (1) the heat budget, dynamo power and start of crystallisation of the inner core, (2)the vigour of plumes, (3) the ratio of underside heating to internal heating in the mantle and, (4) the radioactive element budget of the silicate Earth.

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    **This dataset has been superseded. The latest version is newGeoSure Insurance Product version 8 2020.1**The newGeoSure Insurance Product (newGIP) provides the potential insurance risk due to natural ground movement. It incorporates the combined effects of the 6 GeoSure hazards on (low-rise) buildings. This data is available as vector data, 25m gridded data or alternatively linked to a postcode database – the Derived Postcode Database. A series of GIS (Geographical Information System) maps show the most significant hazard areas. The ground movement, or subsidence, hazards included are landslides, shrink-swell clays, soluble rocks, running sands, compressible ground and collapsible deposits. The newGeoSure Insurance Product uses the individual GeoSure data layers and evaluates them using a series of processes including statistical analyses and expert elicitation techniques to create a derived product that can be used for insurance purposes such as identifying and estimating risk and susceptibility. The Derived Postcode Database (DPD) contains generalised information at a postcode level. The DPD is designed to provide a ‘summary’ value representing the combined effects of the GeoSure dataset across a postcode sector area. It is available as a GIS point dataset or a text (.txt) file format. The DPD contains a normalised hazard rating for each of the 6 GeoSure themes hazards (i.e. each GeoSure theme has been balanced against each other) and a combined unified hazard rating for each postcode in Great Britain. The combined hazard rating for each postcode is available as a standalone product. The Derived Postcode Database is available in a point data format or text file format. It is available in a range of GIS formats including ArcGIS (*.shp), ArcInfo Coverages and MapInfo (*.tab). More specialised formats may be available but may incur additional processing costs. The newGeoSure Insurance Product dataset has been created as vector data but is also available as a raster grid. This data is available in a range of GIS formats, including ArcGIS (*.shp), ArcInfo coverage’s and MapInfo (*.tab). More specialised formats may be available but may incur additional processing costs. Data for the newGIP is provided for national coverage across Great Britain. The newGeoSure Insurance Product dataset is produced for use at 1:50 000 scale providing 50 m ground resolution. This dataset has been specifically developed for the insurance of low-rise buildings. The GeoSure datasets have been developed to identify the potential hazard for low-rise buildings and those with shallow foundations of less than 2 m deep. The identification of ground instability and other geological hazards can assist regional planners; rapidly identifying areas with potential problems and aid local government offices in making development plans by helping to define land suited to different uses. Other users of these data may include developers, homeowners, solicitors, loss adjusters, the insurance industry, architects and surveyors. Version 7 released June 2015.

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    The HiRES-1 project acquired airborne geophysical data during 1998. Coverage included the Central Midlands of England and into the associated Welsh Borderland. Survey flying for the collaborative BGS and World Geoscience Corporation Ltd (WGC) high resolution geophysical and environmental survey was completed in early September 1998. The data comprise multi-channel gamma ray spectrometer, magnetometer and dual frequency VLF-EM. Flight line spacing was 400 m with tie lines at 1200 m and the total area surveyed is some 14 000 km2. Flight-line orientations are W–E over the western survey area, SW–NE over the eastern area. Ground clearance was maintained at 90 m in rural areas, increasing to about 240 m in built-up zones. The project and data descriptions are provided in an internal BGS report: R J Peart, R J Cuss, D Beamish and D G Jones, 2003. The High Resolution Airborne Resource and Environmental Survey- Phase 1 (HiRES-1): background, data processing and dissemination and future prospects. British Geological Survey Internal Report, IR/03/112. 28pp.