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    This dataset is a characterisation of the soil and rocks and the potential bulking factor (likely excavated volume increases) at Formation (local to regional) level for Great Britain. The data is categorised into Class, characteristics of similar soils and rocks and Bulking Factor, range or ranges of % bulking. The excavation of rocks or soils is usually accompanied by a change in volume. This change in volume is referred to as ‘bulking’ and the measure of the change is the ‘bulking factor’. The bulking factor is used to estimate the likely excavated volumes that will need to be moved, stored on site, or removed from site. It is envisaged that the 'Engineering Properties: Bulking of soils and rocks' dataset will be of use to companies involved in the estimation of the volume of excavated material for civil engineering operations. These operations may include, but are not limited to, resource estimation, transportation, storage, disposal and the use of excavated materials as engineered fill. It forms part of the DiGMap Plus dataset series of GIS layers which describe the engineering properties of materials from the base of pedological soil down to c. 3m depth (ie the uppermost c.2m of geology). These deposits display a variable degree of weathering, but still exhibit core engineering characteristics relating to their lithologies.

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    This dataset is a characterisation of discontinuity types found within rocks and soils in Great Britain. Discontinuities are breaks, fractures or planes of weakness in the rock mass. The dataset includes type, frequency and orientation of discontinuities within rock and soil materials at formation (local to regional) scale. The discontinuities are classified in 3 categories: stratification (bedding planes), foliation (mineral banding) and rock mass description. The dataset aims to facilitate the preliminary research for planning and design of buildings, infrastructure and resource extraction. It forms part of the DiGMap Plus dataset series of GIS layers which describes the engineering properties of materials from the base of pedological soil down to c. 3m depth (ie the uppermost c.2m of geology). These deposits display a variable degree of weathering, but still exhibit core engineering characteristics relating to their lithologies.

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    Hazards data in Sichuan (Dechang, Anning River catchment), China. Data include rainfall, earthquake, river catchment, boundary, geological map, soil map, land-cover map, road-map, DEM.