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    This dataset has now been superseded, please see the Estimated Ambient Background Soil Chemistry England and Wales dataset. This dataset indicates the estimated topsoil Arsenic(As), Cadmium (Cd), Cr (Chromium), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) concentrations (mg kg-1) derived by spatial interpolation of the point source urban soil PHE (potentially harmful elements) data. Urban soil geochemical data generally have large positive skewness coefficients so were transformed by taking natural logarithms. To overcome the bias associated with traditional measures of location (mean) and scale (standard deviation) for log-normal data, the inverse distance weighted (IDW) mean and standard deviation of log transformed element concentrations were used for mapping the spatial variation in As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb concentrations. The soil chemistry data is based on GBASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment) soil geochemical data where these are available. Elsewhere the stream sediment data are converted to surface soil equivalent potentially harmful element(PHE) concentrations. This dataset covers England and Wales but data is available for the whole of Great Britain, with the exception of the London area where an inadequate number of geochemical samples are available at the moment.

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    The BGS digital Measured Urban Soil Chemistry data comprises the locations and concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) in urban topsoil samples. The data is derived from the national, high resolution urban soil geochemical data from the BGS Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project. The information is relevant for the first stage of any assessment of risks to human health required by regulatory authorities in relation to land use and also for assessing ecological risk. Although point source PHE (Potentially Harmful Element) concentrations above respective SGVs (Soil Guideline Value) do not necessarily imply a significant health risk, they do highlight the need to consider whether or not there may be a risk. The urban soil chemistry data can be used to assist Local Planning Authorities to identify those areas where a risk assessment may need to be carried out by developers. Comparison of this spatially referenced geochemical data with information on current or historic land use and geological information might help environmental professionals decide whether high PHE concentrations in topsoils can be attributed to geogenic or anthropogenic sources. The point source data is based on an interpretation of the records in the possession of the BGS at the time the dataset was created.

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    The BGS digital estimated urban soil chemistry data (GB_EstimatedUrbanSoilChemistry_v3) indicates the estimated geometric mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) in topsoil derived by spatial interpolation of the point source urban soil chemistry data. The information is relevant for the first stage of any assessment of risks to human health required by regulatory authorities in relation to land use and also assessing ecological risks. Estimated topsoil PHE (Potentially Harmful Element) concentrations above respective SGVs (Soil Guideline Value) do not necessarily imply a significant health risk but they do highlight the need to consider whether or not there may be a risk. Comparison of this spatially referenced geochemical data set with information on current or historic land use and geological information might help environmental professionals decide whether high PHE concentrations in topsoils can be attributed to geogenic or anthropogenic sources. The dataset is based on, and limited to, an interpretation of the records in the possession of the BGS at the time the dataset was created. An indication of high estimated PHE concentrations in soil does not necessarily mean that an individual site will have a high PHE concentration. Topsoil concentrations in urban areas are frequently characterised by strong spatial variation over short distances so this data should be interpreted and used with caution. The original urban topsoil samples were collected and analysed as part of the BGS Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project.

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    This dataset has now been superseded, please see the Measured Urban Soil Chemistry dataset. The BGS digital point source urban soil chemistry data (GB_PointSourceUrbanSoilPHE_v1) comprises the locations and concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) in urban topsoil samples. The data is derived from the national, high resolution urban soil geochemical data from the BGS Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project. The information is relevant for the first stage of any assessment of risks to human health required by regulatory authorities in relation to land use and also for assessing ecological risk. Although point source PHE (Potentially Harmful Element) concentrations above respective SGVs (Soil Guideline Value) do not necessarily imply a significant health risk, they do highlight the need to consider whether or not there may be a risk. The urban soil chemistry data can be used to assist Local Planning Authorities to identify those areas where a risk assessment may need to be carried out by developers. Comparison of this spatially referenced geochemical data with information on current or historic land use and geological information might help environmental professionals decide whether high PHE concentrations in topsoils can be attributed to geogenic or anthropogenic sources. The point source data is based on an interpretation of the records in the possession of the BGS at the time the dataset was created.

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    This dataset has now been superseded, please see the Estimated Ambient Background Soil Chemistry Scotland dataset. The BGS digital soil chemistry data indicates the estimated geometric mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) in surface soil. The soil chemistry data is based on GBASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment) soil geochemical data where these are available. Elsewhere the stream sediment data are converted to surface soil equivalent potentially harmful element(PHE) concentrations. This dataset covers Scotland but data is available for the whole of Great Britain, with the exception of the London area where an inadequate number of geochemical samples are available at the moment.

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    The Estimated Ambient Background Soil Chemistry England and Wales dataset indicates the estimated geometric mean topsoil Arsenic(As), Cadmium (Cd), Cr (Chromium), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) concentrations (mg kg-1). The soil chemistry data is based on GBASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment) soil geochemical data where these are available. Elsewhere the stream sediment data are converted to surface soil equivalent potentially harmful element (PHE) concentrations. This dataset covers England and Wales but data is available for the whole of Great Britain, with the exception of the London area where an inadequate number of geochemical samples are available at the moment.

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    The BGS Estimated Ambient Background Soil Chemistry Scotland digital soil chemistry data indicates the estimated geometric mean topsoil concentrations (mg kg-1) of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb). The soil chemistry data is based on GBASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment) stream sediment data converted to top soil equivalent potentially harmful element(PHE) concentrations. This dataset covers Scotland but data is available for the whole of Great Britain, with the exception of the London area where an inadequate number of geochemical samples are available at the moment.

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    This data set characterises the seismicity occurring within 30 km of the Bora - Tullu-Moye volcanic field between 2016 and 2017. It also provides a description of key geologic features in this region. See the README file for a full explanation of the data set. These data were originally published as supplementary material in g-cubed article: Seismicity of the Bora – Tullu-Moye Volcanic field 2016-2017: Greenfield et al (2018), https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GC007648