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    In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. This section provides information on how the Consortium approaches the health, safety and environmental aspects of the End-to-End CCS chain. The key components of the Health and Safety (H&S) Policies already in place for each Consortium Partner include: Commitment from top level management; Systematic approach to ensure legal compliance; Provision of training to develop H&S awareness and competence; Providing a safe and healthy work environment; Identify, assess and control hazards and risks; Set targets and objectives for improvement; Monitor, measure and review H&S performance; Report on H&S performance, both internally and externally; Extend the policy to contractors and monitor their compliance; Include H&S performance in staff appraisal and reward accordingly; Achieve continuous improvement; This section gives some background and the key drivers to health, safety and environmental aspects of carbon capture, transportation and storage. The narrative describes the Consortium's method of integrating process safety activities with the overall design process. In the appendices, the full End-to-End CCS safety report is provided, followed by detailed summaries of all the CCS chain specific health, safety and environmental work undertaken during FEED. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (Health, safety and environment.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/scottish_power/health_safety/health_safety.aspx

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    During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the FEED stage Capture and Compression plant technical design. The 'Design Basis for CO2 Recovery Plant' lists the design parameters relating to the capture plant site, the flue gas to be treated, the utilities available, the required life and availability of the plant, and other constraints to be complied with in the capture plant, dehydration and compression design. The details of the processes of capture, compression, and dehydration are best visualised on the Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) which show the process flows described above together with additional detail of coolers, pumps, and other plant items. Separate PFDs are provided for the capture plant, the compression plant, and the dehydration plant to show the complete flue gas and CO2 flows. Some of the key aspects of the technical design of the Capture and Compression plant are; There are two separate water circuits shown in the quencher with separate extractions of excess water. These have been separated because the recovered quench water is of good enough quality for re-use on the power station, whilst the deep FGD waste water is sent to the water treatment plant; Molecular sieves have been selected as the most appropriate equipment for dehydration of the CO2 prior to pipeline transportation; With the particular layout constraints of the Kingsnorth site, a split layout of the absorption and regeneration equipment is preferred over the compact layout. Further supporting documents for chapter 5 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/technical/technical.aspx

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    During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the Environment and Consents Reports produced during the current FEED stage. One of the key objectives of the FEED study was to develop information across the project chain, from CO2 generation to storage in sufficient detail to enable production of applications for environmental consents. A Consents Philosophy was generated upon commencement of the FEED to develop a programme of work to achieve this objective, and identified the following groups of consents: Power and capture plant: 1989 Electricity Act - Section 36; Onshore pipeline: 1990 Town and Country Planning Act; Offshore Pipeline; Offshore Platform; Storage Consents. Some keys aspects of the FEED Consents study are: There were significant uncertainties at the outset of the project regarding the types of consent required. This was a consequence of the planning consent for Kingsnorth Units 5 and 6 having already been submitted in 2006, new government policy and draft regulatory guidance, and ongoing government consultations on regulatory issues; Many of these issues were resolved, enabling development of consent applications for the integrated power and capture plant and onshore and offshore CO2 pipeline. However in some cases, particularly for the offshore platform and storage, uncertainty remained throughout the project. In these instances the deliverable was an interpretation of the regulatory requirements that will need to be reviewed and taken into account to obtain consents during subsequent stages of the project. Further supporting documents for chapter 9 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/environment_/environment_.aspx

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    The UK government is committed to sharing the knowledge from the UK CCS projects. Under the 2013/2014 Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) contracts, the Peterhead (Goldeneye) and White Rose CCS projects delivered 86 reports. Under FEED, the completed reports are defined as Key Knowledge Deliverables (KKDs). The reports will enable both the Peterhead and White Rose projects to share the knowledge and learning acquired on their respective CCS projects. These Key Knowledge Deliverables from these FEED studies will cover many aspects of delivering a large scale commercial CCS project. This will include: commercial and financing arrangements; programme and risk management; consents and permitting; technical design, engineering and integration; health and safety; and lessons learnt. The KKDs will be published by DECC during 2015 and 2016. The reports can be accessed from https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/carbon-capture-and-storage-knowledge-sharing.

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    During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the Health and Safety Reports produced during the current FEED stage. HAZID/ENVID studies were carried out for the following sections of the project: Kingsnorth Power Plant (impact on and from CCS); Kingsnorth CO2 capture and compression plant; CO2 Pipeline (On and Offshore); Kingsnorth CO2 Injection Platform; Wells and Reservoirs. The results of the HAZID studies for the power plant and capture and compression plant are recorded in the 'HAZID Report' and 'HAZID Report Addendum' in this Chapter. The pipeline and platform HAZID is in section 6 and the wells and reservoirs HAZID in section 7. Other reviews, such as SIMOPS (Simultaneous Operations) studies have been carried out. A review of Major Accident Hazards for the pipeline has been undertaken and the outcome is described in the report 'ALARP Review Report for Genesis Scope of Work'. Design Risk Assessments (DRAs) were carried out by the design teams, with support from the Safety Consultant. DRAs were qualitative rather than quantitative, due to the early stage of design within FEED. The DRAs are collated and summarised in the 'CDM Design Risk Register'. A draft Pre-Construction Safety Report has been produced to further inform the design process, and enhance our understanding of the significant hazards, both safety and environmental, associated with these processes. This overall approach to Health and Safety is set out in more detail in the 'Health and Safety Design Philosophy' Further supporting documents for chapter 8 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded.

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    In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. This section of the report provides details of the regulatory work carried out during FEED to achieve the legal requirements of constructing and operating an End-to-End CCS system within European, UK and Scottish legislative frameworks, including implications for consenting of the power plant from which CO2 is to be captured. During the development of the Outline Solution for the UKCCS Demonstration Competition, the Consortium developed a comprehensive Consents Register that tracks month by month progress and captures all relevant Consents, permits and licenses required by the End-to-End CCS chain. A summary of the Consortium progress as of the end of Q1 2011 is provided. Written against a backdrop of significant regulatory change and uncertainty, this report also outlines the process undertaken in identifying consenting risk and provides commentary on the key risks identified, as contained within the project Risk Register. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (Consents and permitting.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/scottish_power/consents/consents.aspx

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    During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the results of studies into the undersea storage reservoir for CO2, in the Lower Bunter sandstone of the depleted Hewett natural gas field, the design recommendations for new wells and recommendations for abandonment of existing wells. The study addresses the following areas; Storage Reservoir integrity and capacity; Construction and completion of wells; CO2 properties and injectivity; Abandonment of existing and new wells; Monitoring; Hazard Identification (HAZID) and Risk Assessment. Some of the key aspects of the Wells and Storage technical design are; Wells that have already been abandoned using conventional methods pose a risk of future leakage to the surface and thereby compromising the integrity of the CO2 store; Data acquisition can be difficult: ensure that all required data sets are identified and make requests as early as possible to ensure quality data is obtained resistant standards; The CO2 equation of state and phase diagram is paramount in designing the injection process. Temperature and pressure of the CO2 must be carefully specified to avoid uncontrolled condensation or vaporisation; Many standard components and materials used in the offshore industry are suitable for use in CO2 flowing regime injection applications. Particular attention must be paid to corrosion resistance and longevity in a CO2 environment; For drilling injection wells into a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir, the principal challenge is drilling into low pore pressures, whilst minimising formation damage. Further supporting documents for Chapter 7 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/storage/storage.aspx

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    During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter is devoted to the transportation and injection infrastructure requirements of the Kingsnorth Carbon Capture and Storage development. This encompasses a 36 inch (outside diameter) pipeline which runs onshore for approx 10 km and offshore in the Southern North Sea for 260 km, a platform in the vicinity of the Hewett field location, and appropriate facilities both for the conditioning of CO2 before pipeline entry and the processing of the CO2 stream prior to injection into the sequestration site. The chapter highlights in particular the following areas:- Critical assumptions; Platform Concept Selection; Transport Solution Selection; Pipeline Key Issues; Pipeline Pre-Commissioning; Temperature; Emergency Shutdown; Personnel Safety; Venting; Flow Assurance Modelling. Throughout the execution of the work described in this chapter significant opportunity was taken to ensure that the interfaces from capture (and compression) to pipeline/platform and to wells/storage were managed closely. This was achieved by cross system interface management meetings organized to consider interface issues and to compare issues raised in separate HAZIDs. The purpose of conceptual design has been to identify the problems to be addressed comprehensively by the next stage of FEED and this suite of reports provides valuable insights to the challenges faced. All aspects of establishing an agreed philosophy for design and operation of a storage and transport system for CCS begin with understanding what the initial CO2 flow conditions will be at the interface between the well perforations and the reservoir (i.e. at the sandstone face at the bottom of the well). Further supporting documents for chapter 6 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded.

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    In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. The UK Government's basic premise for financially supporting CCS demonstration is to facilitate further commercial scale CCS projects in the UK and internationally. DECC have made knowledge transfer activities a key requirement of the UKCCS Demonstration Competition. The Consortium identified stakeholder groups particularly relevant for knowledge transfer activities. Stakeholders were categorised in terms of: Knowledge needs; Potential to influence CCS deployment; Experience/ expertise they can bring to demonstration knowledge; Potential to disseminate demonstration knowledge; The assessment identified six priority audience groups: Academics, Environmental NGOs, Finance and Insurance, Industry, Initiatives and Developers and Regulatory and Policy. The Stakeholder Profiling Interviews sought to answer the following questions: Who are the key CCS stakeholders? What information are these stakeholders interested in from a CCS demonstration? What are the preferred methods for key stakeholders to receive and access information? Are the key stakeholders interested in interacting with CCS demonstrations, and if so, what is the preferred method to facilitate this interaction? This section of the FEED Close Out Report combines over 30 stakeholder interviews, with examples of knowledge transfer leading practice. Other FEED workstreams considered wider stakeholder engagement, for example, local community engagement and public communication. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (Stakeholder profiling.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/scottish_power/stakeholder/stakeholder.aspx

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    In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. This section of the report illustrates how the End-to-End CCS chain must be considered as a system as well as separate elements. It builds upon the description of the individual elements contained in Section 3, and captures the development of the End-to-End CCS chain design carried out during FEED. Specifically, this section focuses on the following aspects: Commissioning the system in preparation for operations, as well as decommissioning at the end of the capture and storage period; Operations and maintenance activities; Control; Metering and monitoring; Venting; This section also provides some selected information on the individual CCS chain elements and a summary of the RAM (reliability, availability and maintainability) analysis undertaken during FEED of which one of the key outputs was the anticipated CO2 injection profile for the project. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (End to end CCS chain operation.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/scottish_power/ccs_chain/ccs_chain.aspx