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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Shelter and Escape in the Event of a Release of CO2 from CCS Infrastructure (S-CAPE) was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-179. Pipelines are acknowledged as one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for transporting large volumes of various fluids over long distances and therefore the majority of proposed schemes for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) involve high pressure pipelines transporting CO2. In order to manage the risk in the event of the failure of a carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline, it is a core requirement that a separation distance between pipelines and habitable dwellings is defined to ensure a consistent level of risk. The aim of this project is to develop validated and computationally efficient shelter and escape models describing the consequences to the surrounding population of a CO2 release from CCS transportation infrastructure. The models will allow pipeline operators, regulators and standard setters to make informed and appropriate decisions regarding pipeline safety and emergency response. This poster presents some preliminary findings from the S-Cape project and: • Describes the development of analytical and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models to calculate the change in internal CO2 concentration within a building engulfed by a dispersing cloud of CO2. • Investigates the sensitivity of the CO2 concentration within a building to wind speed and the temperature of the CO2 in the pipeline. • Demonstrates how CFD models can be used to verify results obtained using computationally efficient analytical models.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project 3D Mapping of Large-Scale Subsurface Flow Pathways using Nanoseismic Monitoring was presented at the UKCCSRC Manchester Biannual Meeting, 13.04.2016. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-19.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development, was presented at the Workshop1, 30.04.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development, was presented at the Workshop1ES, 30.04.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    Raw CO2 and CH4 concentration data from a Picarro Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) during experiments which tested the utility of methane as a tracer to quantify CO2 leakage into aqueous environments, as described in Myers, M., Roberts, J.J., White, C., and Stalker, L (2019) ‘An experimental investigation into quantifying CO2 leakage in aqueous environments using chemical tracers’ Chemical Geology

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    This is a blog (Update, 06.03.14) on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 22.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    The aim of this project is to develop validated and computationally efficient shelter and escape models describing the consequences of a carbon dioxide (CO2) release from Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) transport infrastructure to the surrounding population. The models will allow pipeline operators, regulators and standard setters to make informed and appropriate decisions regarding pipeline safety and emergency response. The primary objectives planned to achieve this aim are: 1.To produce an indoor shelter model, based on ventilation and air change theory, which will account for both wind and buoyancy driven CO2 ventilation into a building. The model will be capable of incorporating varying cloud heights, internal building divisions, internal and external temperature differences and impurities. 2.To create an external escape model that will determine the dosage received by an individual exposed to a cloud of CO2 outdoors. The model will be capable of incorporating multi-decision making by the individual in terms of the direction and speed of running, wind direction, the time taken to find shelter and the time required to make a decision, on becoming aware of the release. 3.To build a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model describing the effects of ingress of a CO2 cloud into a multicompartment building. 4.To validate the indoor shelter model and the CFD model against experimental test data for a CO2 release into a single compartment building. 5.To validate the indoor shelter model against further CO2 ingress scenarios modelled with CFD. 6.To conduct a sensitivity study using the shelter and escape models to calculate the dosage that an individual will be expected to receive under different conditions building height, window area, wind direction, temperature gradient, wind speed, atmospheric conditions, building size, running speed, direction of travel and reaction time. 7.To illustrate how the output from the models, in terms of dosage, can be used as input to Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) studies to determine safe distances between CO2 pipelines and population centres. 8.To demonstrate how the output from the models, in terms of dosage, can be used as input to the development of emergency response plans regarding the protection afforded by shelter and the likely concentrations remaining in a shelter after release. 9.To disseminate the findings of the research to relevant stakeholders through publication of academic journal papers as well as presentations at conferences, UKCCSRC meetings and relevant specialist workshops. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-179.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project 3D Mapping of Large-Scale Subsurface Flow Pathways using Nanoseismic Monitoring was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-19. Injection of fluids into geological formations induces microseismic events due to pressure changes causing either opening mode or shear mode fracturing. Injection for CO2 storage is designed to be well below the pressures required for hydraulic fracturing. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of geological formations, some existing structures will be critically stressed so small microseismic events are inevitable. Current reservoir monitoring strategies either examine time-lapse variations in the rock’s elastic properties (4D seismic) over diffuse areas, or aim to detect leakage from diffuse and point sources at the seabed (e.g. the QICS project). The aim of the project is twofold: • test the potential of a new technology (nanoseismics) for passive seismic monitoring that aims to image focused flow pathways at depth of an active CO2 injection site: the Aquistore site, Canada; • use a multi-disciplinary approach to interpret passive seismic data sets obtained during operation of the same site.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Shelter and Escape in the Event of a Release of CO2 from CCS Infrastructure (S-CAPE) was presented at the UKCCSRC Manchester Biannual Meeting, 13.04.2016. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-179.