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    This is a blog (Workshop1, 30.04.14) on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    This project will produce and disseminate the first design and operating guidelines for the flexible operation of CCS pipeline networks. The research will explore how CCS pipeline networks can react effectively to short, medium and long term variations in the availability and flow of CO2 from capture plants, as well as responding to the constraints imposed on the system by the ability (or otherwise) of CO2 storage facilities to accept variable flow. The work will develop relevant scenarios for modelling the likely variability of CO2 flow in a CCS pipeline network, develop hydraulic models of CO2 behaviour, engage stakeholders in the process through practitioner workshops, and deliver guidelines to the industry and other interested stakeholders. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    Simplified reservoir models are used to estimate the boundary conditions (pressure, temperature and flow) that are relevant to the primary aims of this project. A set of boundary conditions are defined at the wellhead that represent the behaviour of the store. Data relates to publication: Sanchez Fernandez, E., Naylor, M., Lucquiaud, M., Wetenhall, B., Aghajani, H., Race, J., Chalmers, H. Impacts of geological store uncertainties on the design and operation of flexible CCS offshore pipeline infrastructure (2016) International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 52, pp. 139-154. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84978197316&doi=10.1016%2fj.ijggc.2016.06.005&partnerID=40&md5=d567f0e06f561613554a1f1c2e230194 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.06.005

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    This is a blog (Update, 06.03.14) on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Flexible CCS Network Development, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 22.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40.

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    The aim of this project is to develop validated and computationally efficient shelter and escape models describing the consequences of a carbon dioxide (CO2) release from Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) transport infrastructure to the surrounding population. The models will allow pipeline operators, regulators and standard setters to make informed and appropriate decisions regarding pipeline safety and emergency response. The primary objectives planned to achieve this aim are: 1.To produce an indoor shelter model, based on ventilation and air change theory, which will account for both wind and buoyancy driven CO2 ventilation into a building. The model will be capable of incorporating varying cloud heights, internal building divisions, internal and external temperature differences and impurities. 2.To create an external escape model that will determine the dosage received by an individual exposed to a cloud of CO2 outdoors. The model will be capable of incorporating multi-decision making by the individual in terms of the direction and speed of running, wind direction, the time taken to find shelter and the time required to make a decision, on becoming aware of the release. 3.To build a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model describing the effects of ingress of a CO2 cloud into a multicompartment building. 4.To validate the indoor shelter model and the CFD model against experimental test data for a CO2 release into a single compartment building. 5.To validate the indoor shelter model against further CO2 ingress scenarios modelled with CFD. 6.To conduct a sensitivity study using the shelter and escape models to calculate the dosage that an individual will be expected to receive under different conditions building height, window area, wind direction, temperature gradient, wind speed, atmospheric conditions, building size, running speed, direction of travel and reaction time. 7.To illustrate how the output from the models, in terms of dosage, can be used as input to Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) studies to determine safe distances between CO2 pipelines and population centres. 8.To demonstrate how the output from the models, in terms of dosage, can be used as input to the development of emergency response plans regarding the protection afforded by shelter and the likely concentrations remaining in a shelter after release. 9.To disseminate the findings of the research to relevant stakeholders through publication of academic journal papers as well as presentations at conferences, UKCCSRC meetings and relevant specialist workshops. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-179.

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    Grant: SCAPE (UKCCSRC Call 2). This is a Matlab code that calculates the change in internal concentration of CO2 in a building as a cloud of CO2 engulfs the building. The CO2 is assumed to enter through any openings in the building. This Matlab code take a series of inputs including wind speed, building geometry, geometry of external temperature and external CO2 concentration (all inputs are listed in the headers of the spreadsheet ‘inputs.xlsx’) and calculates how the internal CO2 concentration and temperature changes over time and the toxic dose of CO2 received by individuals inside the building. Full details will be given in a publication. File formats: .xlsx and .m

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project 3D Mapping of Large-Scale Subsurface Flow Pathways using Nanoseismic Monitoring was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-19. Injection of fluids into geological formations induces microseismic events due to pressure changes causing either opening mode or shear mode fracturing. Injection for CO2 storage is designed to be well below the pressures required for hydraulic fracturing. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of geological formations, some existing structures will be critically stressed so small microseismic events are inevitable. Current reservoir monitoring strategies either examine time-lapse variations in the rock’s elastic properties (4D seismic) over diffuse areas, or aim to detect leakage from diffuse and point sources at the seabed (e.g. the QICS project). The aim of the project is twofold: • test the potential of a new technology (nanoseismics) for passive seismic monitoring that aims to image focused flow pathways at depth of an active CO2 injection site: the Aquistore site, Canada; • use a multi-disciplinary approach to interpret passive seismic data sets obtained during operation of the same site.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Shelter and Escape in the Event of a Release of CO2 from CCS Infrastructure (S-CAPE) was presented at the UKCCSRC Manchester Biannual Meeting, 13.04.2016. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-179.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Nano-seismic mapping at Aquistore, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-19.