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    The solubility of water (H2O) in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) mixtures (xN2 = 0.050 and 0.100, mole fraction) has been investigated at 25 and 40 °C in the pressure range between 8 and 18 MPa. The motivation for this work is to aid the understanding of water solubility in complex CO2-based mixtures, which is required for the safety of anthropogenic CO2 transport via pipeline for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The measurements have been performed using an FTIR spectroscopic approach and demonstrate that this method is a suitable technique to determine the concentration of water in both pure CO2 and CO2 + N2 mixtures. The presence of N2 lowers the mole concentration of water in CO2 by up to 42% for a given pressure in the studied conditions and this represents important data for the development of pipelines for CCS. This work also provides preliminary indications that the key parameters for the solubility of H2O in such CO2 + N2 mixtures are the temperature and the overall density of the fluid mixture and not solely the given pressure of the CCS mixture. This could have implications for understanding the parameters required to be monitored during the safer transportation of CO2 mixtures in CCS pipelines. The paper is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583615000444, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.002. UKCCSRC Grants UKCCSRC-C1-21 and UKCCSRC-C2-185.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project, Measurement of water solubility limits of CO2 mixtures to underpin the safe pipeline transportation of CO2, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-185.

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    The solubility of water (H2O) in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) mixtures (xN2 = 0.050 and 0.100, mole fraction) has been investigated at 25 and 40 degrees C in the pressure range between 8 and 18 MPa. The motivation for this work is to aid the understanding of water solubility in complex CO2-based mixtures, which is required for the safety of anthropogenic CO2 transport via pipeline for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The measurements have been performed using an FTIR spectroscopic approach and demonstrate that this method is a suitable technique to determine the concentration of water in both pure CO2 and CO2 + N2 mixtures. The presence of N2 lowers the mole concentration of water in CO2 by up to 42% for a given pressure in the studied conditions and this represents important data for the development of pipelines for CCS. This work also provides preliminary indications that the key parameters for the solubility of H2O in such CO2 + N2 mixtures are the temperature and the overall density of the fluid mixture and not solely the given pressure of the CCS mixture. This could have implications for understanding the parameters required to be monitored during the safer transportation of CO2 mixtures in CCS pipelines. The paper is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583615000444, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.002. UKCCSRC Grants UKCCSRC-C1-21 and UKCCSRC-C2-185.

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    A new synthetic method for studying phase behaviour is described using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy. The method has been developed to provide relevant information on the solubility of water in CO2. The dew point of water has been determined at three different pressures, viz. (4.05, 5.05 and 6.03) MPa with mole fractions of water between 0.01 and 0.04. The data obtained fill the gap in the literature in these regions of pressures and temperatures and could be of high importance in the context of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. Indeed, the presence of water in the captured CO2 could damage the pipeline used for CO2 transport. Hence, it is very important to have a fully understanding of the behaviour of the (CO2 + H2O) mixtures in wide range of temperature relevant for CCS. The paper is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021961415003547, DOI: 10.1016/j.jct.2015.09.024. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C2-185.

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    This project will determine the dew point of water, or "water solubility", in impure CO2 mixtures (e.g. containing N2 and H2). At present, key data for defining water levels have not been determined. The data are important because liquid water is highly acidic in the presence of excess CO2; this acidity can be increased by trace amounts of SO2 and H2S and acidity will greatly accelerate corrosion. This research will provide the first accurate data for CO2 transportation systems, which can be used to develop accurate equations of state and define more robust pipeline specifications. These in turn can be applied to inform cost benefit analyses on the additional costs on the pipeline material and construction balanced against the cost of purification and the needs of safety. The research will provide critical physical property data to enable the safe and cost effective transportation of CO2. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-21.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Measurement of Water Solubility Limits of CO2 Mixtures to Underpin the Safe Pipeline Transportation of CO2 was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-185. Monitoring the composition of mixtures which are of relevance to Carbon Capture and Storage pipelines is of high importance for the safe transportation of CO2 during the CCS process. Captured CO2 will contain varying amounts of impurities such as N2, H2, O2 and H2O. These are components which greatly affect the phase behaviour of the captured CO2. Being able to quantifiably monitor the composition and components of CCS-relevant mixtures is key for (i) safety; (ii) determining standard operating conditions. This project, incorporating several novel techniques, have been used to measure: • The phase behaviour and thermodynamic properties of CO2 containing varying amounts of impurities in order to improve or validate existing models of CCS relevant gas mixtures. • The solubility of water in impure CO2 CCS mixtures.

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    This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Determination of water Solubility in CO2 Mixtures, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 22.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-21.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project, Measurement of water solubility limits of CO2 mixtures to underpin the safe pipeline transportation of CO2, was presented at the Cardiff Biannual, 10.09.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-185.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Tractable Equation of State for CO2 Mixtures, was presented at the Cambridge Biannual, 02.04.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-22.

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    This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Experimental investigation and CFD modelling of oxy-coal combustion, was presented at the Sheffield Biannual, 08.04.13. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-27.