Text files of physical parameters controlled or measured in rock heating and deformation experiments; jpg and tif files of optical and electron microscope images of experimental products; xome xlsx spreadsheets related to data interpretation.
Seismic data and metadata. Grant abstract: More than 500 million people live close to active volcanoes. Evidence suggests that, throughout history, societies have been affected and destroyed by catastrophic eruptions. In the 1900s alone almost 100000 people were killed by volcanic explosions and their associated hazards. Explosive eruptions inject enormous columns of ash and debris into the atmosphere and discharge fast avalanches of hot gas and rocks on the slopes of volcanic edifices. Lava dome eruptions represent a style of volcanism of distinctive interest because of their potentially catastrophic effects. The hazards from this type of eruptions are well-known, due to the unpredictable transitions from slow effusion of viscous lava to violent explosive activity, and to the propensity of volcanic domes to suddenly collapse spawning devastating pyroclastic flows. Over the past few decades shifts in eruptive style were reported at several lava dome volcanoes worldwide. The underlying processes driving these transitions, however, remain poorly understood, and geophysical measurements documenting them are also very rare. The Santiaguito lava dome complex in Guatemala has been continuously erupting since 1922 and it has switched several times between effusive and explosive eruption regimes, even displaying the two types of activity simultaneously. At the time of this writing Santiaguito is undergoing a major transition from effusive to explosive behaviour marked by some the largest eruptive events ever recorded at this lava dome complex. The new activity started with a large explosion on 11 April, 2016, which produced an ash column that rose to a height in excess of 4.5 km above the vent and was clearly visible in satellite images. Preliminary estimates by local scientists suggest that this explosion was two orders of magnitude more energetic than anything recorded at Santiaguito over the past 5-6 years. The new activity offers a rare opportunity to document and investigate the geophysical fingerprint of a sudden switch in eruptive style at a lava dome volcano, and to decipher its underlying mechanisms. A geophysical deployment, including seismic, deformation and acoustic measurements is the ideal framework to seize an opportunity that is not frequently available. The proposed experiment will help addressing key scientific questions on activity at lava dome volcanoes, with impact on hazard assessment and risk mitigation in this and other eruption prone areas. The pool of target beneficiaries is broad and includes scientists within academia, civil defense authorities, policy makers and communities living nearby active volcanoes.
A new family of spherical harmonic geomagnetic field models spanning the past 9000 yr based on magnetic field directions and intensity stored in archaeological artefacts, igneous rocks and sediment records. The pfm9k geomagnetic field models and datafiles as well as the individual bootstraps of the pfm9k.1b geomagnetic field model presented in A. Nilsson, R. Holme, M. Korte, N. Suttie and M. Hill (2014): Reconstructing Holocene geomagnetic field variation: new methods, models and implications. Geophys. J. Int., doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu120 are included here.
Data files have .dat extension and can be opened with Notepad or any basic text editor software. Each file contains details of sample name, dimensions (length and diameter). All deformed samples were pre-prepared cylinders of synthetic neighbourite. Each file contains 11 data column as follows: Time (hours); Time (secs); CP (V); Vol (V); Force(V); Temp (V); Disp(V); Euro disp (mm); Furn T (mV); PoreP (mV); Furnace Power where V= Volts, mV= millivolts. The Calibration sheet (specific to the apparatus used) uploaded together with the data files is required to convert V and mV raw data into values of stress, strain, strain rate, confining pressure and temperature.
Infrasound Data collected at Volcan de Fuego (Guatemala) during three campaigns (May and November 2018, and June 2019). Associated article https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11111302
All the raw experimental data obtained for the study reported in Hodgson, E., Grappone, J. M., Biggin, A. J., Hill, M. J., & Dekkers, M. J. (2018). Thermoremanent behavior in synthetic samples containing natural oxyexsolved titanomagnetite. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017GC007354
Data collected as part of a UK/French/US collaborative effort to record aftershocks from the 2016 Pedernales Earthquake in Ecuador. The dataset comprises continuous seismic data recorded on broadband and short period instrumentation.
Friction coefficient and frictional stability (rate & state parameter) data for triaxially compressed direct shear experiments on kaolinite-rich china clay and Mg-montmorillonite fault gouges (<2micron grain size). A total of 19 raw experimental datasets are presented as detailed in the index files: 13 on kaolinite-rich china clay, and 6 on cation-exchanged Mg-Montmorillonite. The raw data files, logged at either 1 or 2Hz, comprise confining pressures, upstream and downstream fluid pressures, force experienced by the direct shear assembly during triaxial compression, and absolute volumes of the confining pressure and fluid pressure reservoirs. Data is provided as measured by gauges in the pressure vessel in Volts, and also as calculated in MPa, kN and mm3. Also presented are the outputs of MATLAB models run to simulate the rate and state parameters k, a, b, dc and f0 for each experiment, with error data presented as 2sigma and standard error values. Parameters were determined using a non-linear least-squares fitting routine with the machine stiffness treated as a fitting parameter (c.f. Noda and Shimamoto, 2009). Data were fit by a single set of state variables (a, b, dc) with a linear detrend. Also presented are the outputs of Specific Thermogravimetric Analyses on kaolinite-rich china clay and Mg-montmorillonite.
The UK Government has set targets for the reduction of CO2 emissions of 80 % by 2050. Post-combustion capture of CO2 from power plants is key if we are to achieve these targets. Post-combustion CO2 capture is challenging due to the low concentration of CO2 in the waste stream and the presence of impurities (H2O, NOx, SOx, etc). Post-combustion capture adds energetic cost via the requirement to capture and compress the CO2. Amine-based scrubbing processes are being evaluated for post-combustion CO2 capture. This is a costly process, and the amines are corrosive. Other candidate technologies include physical adsorption into solid sorbents coupled with pressure-swing or temperature-swing adsorption/desorption. In principle this may lower the energy overhead, but the volume of sorbent required is extremely large, limiting the range of sensible materials. Membrane-based processes have potential advantages over the above. In particular, there are no losses due to heat required to regenerate and release CO2 from the spent sorbent or solvent, and the footprint for the technology and amount of material required is comparatively small. Here, we will develop advanced mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) technology utilising organic fillers, rather than inorganic fillers, that could be cost-effectively fitted to power plants to separate and capture CO2. There has been much research on inorganic-organic MMMs, using fillers such as zeolites and MOFs. However, it is challenging to achieve a homogeneous dispersion of the inorganic filler particles in the polymer matrix. This is exacerbated by the lack of compatibility between most fillers, which are frequently crystalline inorganic or metal-organic materials, and the membrane polymers, which are invariably amorphous and organic. We build therefore on our unique report of organic-organic MMM (Angew Chem Int Ed, 2013) , where excellent dispersion of the organic filler was found and there was good adhesion between the organic polymer and the organic filler, both of which are predominantly aromatic structures. We address this by bringing together two UK groups who have pioneered in the development of novel porous membranes (Budd) and new microporous organic materials (Adams, Cooper). Grant number: EP/M001342/1.
This presentation on the EPSRC project, Organic Mixed Matrix Membrane Technologies (ORGMEMT) for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture, Cranfield Biannual, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: EP/M001342/1.