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    Micro CT scans and associated documents (3d files, animations, segmentation files, data files etc) of palaeontological material.

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    Elastic thickness data for Tasmantid Seamounts determined from gravity modelling. Published paper, Richards, Fred & Kalnins, Lara & Watts, A. & Cohen, Benjamin & Beaman, Robin. (2018). The Morphology of the Tasmantid Seamounts: Interactions Between Tectonic Inheritance and Magmatic Evolution. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 10.1029/2018GC007821.

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    Paired water and river sediment samples were collected from Vietnam Australia, Cambodia and Nepal. Waters were analysed for major ions, Sr isotopes and Mg isotopes. Sediments were sequentially extracted using ammonium chloride, acetic acid and hydrochloric acid to target exchangeable ions, calcite and dolomite respectively. They were analysed for major ions and selected isotopes.

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    Primary data, model initial conditions, model results, a compiled database of olivine diffusivity experiments and supplementary tables used in the paper: 'Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid trans-crustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience'. Data_S1 contains electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) profile data of olivine crystals used in this study. This file also includes all of the initial conditions for forsterite content (XFo), Ni and Mn used in the diffusion modelling. Standard deviations are averaged values of standard deviations from counting statistics and repeat measurements of secondary standards. Data_S2 is a compiled database of olivine diffusion experiments used to derive multiple linear regressions for diffusion coefficients and associated covariance matrices. Regressions were only made through [001] data. Data_S3 contains median values for all of the inverted parameters estimated for each crystal profile from the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion for each type of initial condition and model equation. All of the Monte Carlo realisations for each model are also included in this file. Table_S1 is a supplementary table that contains olivine diffusion equation regression parameters derived and used as part of this study. Table_S2 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S3 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for aSiO2 (silica activity) dependent olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S4 is a supplementary table that contains angles between the EPMA profile and the main crystallographic axes in olivine as measured by EBSD. These angles are incorporated into the anisotropy calculation used to determine the apparent diffusivity parallel to the measured profile. angle100P, angle010P and angle001P are the angles between the profile and [100], [010] and [001] respectively. Table_S5 is a supplementary table that contains ,median timescales and 1 sigma errors obtained from the posterior distributions of the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion conducted on each olivine profile. The results using Al-based initial conditions, constant initial conditions (diffusion only), and aSiO2 based equations using Al-based initial conditions are presented here. The classification of each profile (growth-dominated vs. Al-decoupled) is also shown. See paper (Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid trans-crustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience) for more details.

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    The dataset documents microfossils (acanthomorphic acritarchs) and sedimentary structures within phosphorite pebbles and interstitial carbonate cements from the Ediacaran Biskopas and Biri formations, Hedmark Group, Norway. Data includes extensive optical microscopy images (~30,000) of the microfossils and structures; SEM-BSE images, EDS elemental map and spot point data of phosphatized and carbonate-hosted microfossils; BSE maps and EDS elemental maps of the sedimentary structures within phosphorite pebbles; sedimentary descriptions and detailed grain size counts for phosphorites; detailed spread sheets recording microfossil size ranges, microfacies distributions, and abundances.

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    Dihedral angle data and bulk rock P2O5 concentrations for cumulates from the Skaergaard Intrusion of East Greenland. The data were used to constrain the thickness of the mushy layer at the point in the stratigraphic where apatite arrives as a liquidus phase. The work was published: Holness et al. (2017) Journal of Petrology, doi: 10.1093/petrology/egx040

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    This dataset contains the low-resolution isotopic data (O & C) covering the last 1Ma, which is used to establish a more precise glacial-interglacial stratigraphy than the shipboard bio/paleomagneto stratigraphy for 2 NW Pacific Sites (IODP EXP350 1436C and 1437B) both were recovered at intermediate depths. The planktonic foraminifera census counts are used to assess the changes in surface water in the area affected by the Kuroshio Current. They are also used in concert with other sedimentological, micropaleontological or taphonomical evidences to estimate the changes in carbonate preservation at intermediate water depth in relation to changes in global ocean circulation during glacial interglacial cycles. Data report: Pleistocene planktonic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon stable isotope records and their use to improve the age model of Hole U1436C ores recovered east of the Aogashima Volcano, Maryline J. Vautravers

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    Advances in our understanding of the Earth's climate system will rely on our ability to link high-resolution sedimentary archives from the oceans, ice-cores and terrestrial sequences, and to interpret these records in the context of novel Earth system modeling approaches. Few places exist in the world where sufficiently detailed and unambiguous marine-ice-terrestrial linkages are possible. One challenge for IODP, and the broader drilling community in general, is to identify and recover marine, ice and terrestrial sequences from appropriate locations and with adequate temporal resolution to study processes of the integrated climate system. One such region is the southwest Iberian Margin where it has been demonstrated that the surface oxygen isotopic record could be correlated precisely to temperature variations (i.e., d18O) in Greenland ice cores. By comparison, the benthic d18O signal in the same core resembled the temperature record from Antarctica. Moreover, the narrow continental shelf and proximity of the Tagus River results in the rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment off Portugal, thereby providing a record of atmospheric changes and permitting correlation of marine and ice core records to European terrestrial sequences. This is the only place in the ocean where such marine-ice-terrestrial correlations have been demonstrated unambiguously. It is therefore highly desirable to extend the Iberian Margin record to encompass the full range of Plio-Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles by drilling with the JOIDES Resolution (JR). Towards this end, Proposal 771-Full was submitted to IODP by an international group of 16 proponents led by the UK. The proposal was well received and reviewed by the Science Steering and Evaluation Panel (SSEP), but the IODP Site Survey Panel (SSP) identified major inadequacies in the quality of the seismic data: "The panel raised several concerns on the suitability of the submitted data with regard to its appropriateness, both to image the target properly and with regard to the site location. The panel also discussed the need for 2 high-resolution lines and considered that places where Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) or closely spaced faults were present deserved these 2 high-resolution lines." This proposal requests 25 days of ship time to collect the necessary seismic and sediment data needed to meet the SSP requirements and recommendations. Several "stand-alone" scientific objectives are also proposed related to the modern hydrography and sedimentary processes on the southwest Iberian Margin, and calibration of palaeoceanographic proxies used for reconstructing past changes in deep-water circulation. This value-added science will make effective use of ship time and contribute key information needed to interpret the downcore records to be obtained by IODP.

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    Electron backscatter diffraction data for cumulates from the Skaergaard Intrusion of East Greenland.

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    We used existing coretop samples from several sites from the Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans (Fig. 1 and Table S1) to test the relationship between Mg/Ca ratios and D47 values in modern foraminifera. In the North Atlantic the cores were the same as those used previously by Elderfield and Ganssen (2000) (Tables S1 and S2). Coretops with the potential to yield large (>5 mg) mono-specific samples of foraminifera were selected from the >300 lm size fraction of the sediment except for Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) where the >150 lm size fraction was chosen to obtain sufficient material. After cleaning the samples consisted of _3 mg of foraminiferal calcite and included 8 different species of surface- and deepdwelling planktonic foraminifera: Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globorotalia hirsuta, Globorotalia inflata, Globorotalia menardii, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s), and Orbulina universa. The Godwin Laboratory clumped isotope calibration (i.e., the regression between D47 and temperature) was established using natural cave carbonates that precipitated subaqueously at known temperatures, ranging from 3 to 47ºC (Table 1, Fig. 2). These carbonates grew under conditions that minimize CO2-degassing and evaporation and hence kinetic fractionation effects are negligible owing to an unlimited DIC pool in the water (Kele et al., 2015). All samples consist of calcite, except NAICA-1 which is aragonite.