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    Primary data, model initial conditions, model results, a compiled database of olivine diffusivity experiments and supplementary tables used in the paper: 'Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid trans-crustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience'. Data_S1 contains electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) profile data of olivine crystals used in this study. This file also includes all of the initial conditions for forsterite content (XFo), Ni and Mn used in the diffusion modelling. Standard deviations are averaged values of standard deviations from counting statistics and repeat measurements of secondary standards. Data_S2 is a compiled database of olivine diffusion experiments used to derive multiple linear regressions for diffusion coefficients and associated covariance matrices. Regressions were only made through [001] data. Data_S3 contains median values for all of the inverted parameters estimated for each crystal profile from the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion for each type of initial condition and model equation. All of the Monte Carlo realisations for each model are also included in this file. Table_S1 is a supplementary table that contains olivine diffusion equation regression parameters derived and used as part of this study. Table_S2 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S3 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for aSiO2 (silica activity) dependent olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S4 is a supplementary table that contains angles between the EPMA profile and the main crystallographic axes in olivine as measured by EBSD. These angles are incorporated into the anisotropy calculation used to determine the apparent diffusivity parallel to the measured profile. angle100P, angle010P and angle001P are the angles between the profile and [100], [010] and [001] respectively. Table_S5 is a supplementary table that contains ,median timescales and 1 sigma errors obtained from the posterior distributions of the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion conducted on each olivine profile. The results using Al-based initial conditions, constant initial conditions (diffusion only), and aSiO2 based equations using Al-based initial conditions are presented here. The classification of each profile (growth-dominated vs. Al-decoupled) is also shown. See paper (Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid trans-crustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience) for more details.

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    The dataset documents microfossils (acanthomorphic acritarchs) and sedimentary structures within phosphorite pebbles and interstitial carbonate cements from the Ediacaran Biskopas and Biri formations, Hedmark Group, Norway. Data includes extensive optical microscopy images (~30,000) of the microfossils and structures; SEM-BSE images, EDS elemental map and spot point data of phosphatized and carbonate-hosted microfossils; BSE maps and EDS elemental maps of the sedimentary structures within phosphorite pebbles; sedimentary descriptions and detailed grain size counts for phosphorites; detailed spread sheets recording microfossil size ranges, microfacies distributions, and abundances.

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    Paired water and river sediment samples were collected from Vietnam Australia, Cambodia and Nepal. Waters were analysed for major ions, Sr isotopes and Mg isotopes. Sediments were sequentially extracted using ammonium chloride, acetic acid and hydrochloric acid to target exchangeable ions, calcite and dolomite respectively. They were analysed for major ions and selected isotopes.

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    Micro CT scans and associated documents (3d files, animations, segmentation files, data files etc) of palaeontological material.

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    Elastic thickness data for Tasmantid Seamounts determined from gravity modelling. Published paper, Richards, Fred & Kalnins, Lara & Watts, A. & Cohen, Benjamin & Beaman, Robin. (2018). The Morphology of the Tasmantid Seamounts: Interactions Between Tectonic Inheritance and Magmatic Evolution. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 10.1029/2018GC007821.

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    This is continuous raw data from 3-component broad-band (30 sec to 100 Hz) Guralp 6TD seismometer deployments around Askja in the central region of Iceland.

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    This data contains the results of numerical simulations described in the following two papers: Alisic L., Rhebergen S., Rudge J.F., Katz R.F., Wells G.N. Torsion of a cylinder of partially molten rock with a spherical inclusion: theory and simulation (2016) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.16 doi:10.1002/2015GC006061 Alisic L., Rudge J.F., Katz R.F., Wells G.N., Rhebergen S. Compaction around a rigid, circular inclusion in partially molten rock (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 119:5903-5920 doi:10.1002/2013JB010906

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    Electron backscatter diffraction data for cumulates from the Skaergaard Intrusion of East Greenland. 12 samples from the Skaergaard Intrusion: 9 from the Layered Series, and 3 from the trough layering. Layered Series samples have a prefix LS; Trough layer samples have a prefix TB.

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    Image data and figures of holotypes of small carbonaceous fossils from Cambrian sediments of the Baltic Basin. Also included are sampling information and fossil measurement data. Data collected from Sweden (mainland and Baltic islands) and Estonia (northern coastline). This information is relevant to the following publications: Slater, B.J., Harvey, T.H., Guilbaud, R. and Butterfield, N.J., 2017. A cryptic record of Burgess Shale-type diversity from the early Cambrian of Baltica. Palaeontology, 60(1), pp.117-140. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pala.12273/full Slater, B.J., Harvey, T.H. and Butterfield, N.J., 2018. Small carbonaceous fossils (SCFs) from the Terreneuvian (lower Cambrian) of Baltica. Palaeontology, In Press. Guilbaud, R., Slater, B.J., Poulton, S.W., Harvey, T.H., Brocks, J.J., Nettersheim, B.J. and Butterfield, N.J., 2018. Oxygen minimum zones in the early Cambrian ocean. Geochemical Perspectives Letters, In Press.

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    High precision electron-probe analysis of olivine compositions from a set of ocean island basalts. Accompanied by thin section scans and QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by SCANning) compositional maps.