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    Analysed trace element data and radiocarbon data from five existing marine sediment cores from the NE Pacific margin (45-50N) that intersects the major water masses of the N Pacific, from a depth transect (700-3300m)

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    This dataset was acquired as part of a NERC-funded Doctoral Training Partnership (DTP) PhD Studentship at the University of Leicester and British Geological Survey between 2014-2018 [grant no. NE/L002493/1] (see also Emmings, 2018 unpublished PhD thesis). This research was conducted within the Central England NERC Training Alliance (CENTA) consortium. This dataset accompanies a manuscript titled "Late Palaeozoic Phytoplankton Blackout: A 100 Myr Record of Enhanced Primary Productivity". Co-authors and co-workers were: Joseph F. Emmings (University of Leicester, British Geological Survey); Sarah J. Davies (University of Leicester); Simon W. Poulton (University of Leeds); Michael H. Stephenson (British Geological Survey); Gawen R. T. Jenkin (University of Leicester); Christopher H. Vane (British Geological Survey); Melanie J. Leng (British Geological Survey, University of Nottingham) and Vicky Moss-Hayes (British Geological Survey). Nick Riley (Carboniferous Ltd) is thanked for sharing biostratigraphic expertise and assistance. Nick Marsh and Tom Knott are thanked for providing assistance during geochemical analyses. This dataset contains the following data (in Microsoft Excel format). 1) Fe species abundance data measured at the University of Leeds using the sequential extraction method of Poulton and Canfield (2005) and pyrite S extraction method of Canfield et al., (1986); 2) Total Fe, Si, Mn and Al major element concentrations (measured using x-ray fluorescence at the University of Leicester; XRF); 3) Total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic C (MINC) data measured via Rock-Eval pyrolysis at the British Geological Survey; 4) Cu, Mo and U trace element concentration data (measured via XRF at the University of Leicester) and enrichment factors relative to Post-Archaean Average Shale (PAAS; Taylor and McLennan, 1985). Analyses were coupled on 99 sample powders from three positions in the Craven Basin and spanning ammonoid biozones P2c-d to E1c1. See also http://dx.doi.org/10.5285/9ceadcad-a93c-4bab-8ca1-07b0de2c5ed0 for additional sedimentological and geochemical data from Hind Clough, MHD4 and Cominco S9. These data were also interpreted together with 20 drill-core samples previously acquired from Hind Clough (‘HC01’ prefix). See http://dx.doi.org/10.5285/c39a32b2-1a30-4426-8389-2fae21ec60ad for further information regarding this drill-core dataset. References: Emmings, J. 2018. Controls on UK Lower Namurian Shale Gas Prospectivity: Understanding the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Organic Matter in Siliciclastic Mudstones. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Leicester. Poulton, S. W. & Canfield, D. E. 2005. Development of a sequential extraction procedure for iron: implications for iron partitioning in continentally derived particulates. Chemical Geology 214, 209-221, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.09.003. Canfield D., Raiswell R., Westrich J., Reaves CM, Berner RA. 1986. The use of chromium reduction in the analysis of reduced inorganic sulfur in sediments and shales. Chemical Geology, 54(1): 149-155. Taylor S, McLennan S. 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell Scientific: London.

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    Water samples have predominantly been collected by the G-BASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment) project at an average sampling density of one sample per 1.5 km square. Samples have been collected from approximately 85% of Great Britain but it is only from Wales and Humber-Trent southwards that a wide range of analytes have been determined. Currently G-BASE stream water samples collected from high order streams are determined by ICP-AES for 27 elements - Sr, Cd, Ba, Si, Mn, Fe, P, S (as SO42-), B, Mg, V, Na, Mo, Al, Be, Ca, Zn, Cu, Pb, Li, Zr, Co, Ni, Y, La, K and Cr; and by quadrupole ICP-MS for 24 trace elements - Li, Be, Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Tl, Pb, Th and U. Automated colorimetric methods are used to determine Cl and NO3- and ion selective electrode is used to determine F. Waters are also analysed for non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) to determine dissolved organic carbon content. All samples have routinely been analysed for pH, conductivity and bicarbonate. Much of the UK coverage also includes uranium and fluoride analyses.

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    The database contains a range of geochemical data for metamorphosed limestones from the Dalradian of Scotland and Northern Ireland. The data include a) whole-rock geochemical analyses by XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) for major oxides and a range of trace elements for several hundred samples, b) a number of whole-carbonate O (oxygen) and C (carbon) stable isotope and Sr (strontium) data, c) electron microprobe mineral data on carbonates and calc-silicate minerals and d) ion-probe O stable isotope and mineral trace element data for calcites in a small number of samples. The samples from which the data have been derived were collected from a wide range of outcrops within the Scottish and Irish Dalradian, mainly concentrated in the North East Grampian Highlands of Scotland. The data have been collected mainly to support the mapping and scientific work being undertaken in the Grampian Highlands by BGS since the early 1980s. The database includes some data from the literature. All samples are located by British National Grid coordinates to the nearest 10m or better. The isotope data were acquired as part of a PhD study by C W Thomas in the late 1990s. The database is not currently being added to, but is still being used in various studies. The combined data provide wide-ranging insights into marine chemistry contemporary with deposition of the limestones and the way in which this chemistry changed with time during the Neoproterozoic, and they elucidate subsequent effects of diagenesis and metamorphism and the outcrop and grain-scale. The data set is largely complete with regard to geochemical data, but still requires some editing to bring all fields up to date, particularly with regard to lithostratigraphical assignation. The data are currently held in MS Access tables and can conveniently be displayed via GIS or abstracted in tabular form and used in spreadsheets, statistical analysis and graphing software.

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    The data comprises a multi-proxy dataset of 49 samples spanning approximately the time interval from 1.8-3.9 Ma according to the currently available shipboard age model from offshore the Limpopo River, southwest Indian Ocean. Data includes major and trace element chemistry and K-Ar ages from the clay fraction (<2um), radiogenic isotope geochemistry, stable isotopes of planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber. The data set is now online with a citable DOI, although with an embargo till September 2019, http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/IEDA/100719

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    Samples of high-grade amphibolite-facies gneiss collected from north west Bhutan. Data comprises samples mineral chemistry data, U-Pb rutile data and garnet trace element compositions.

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    This dataset presents major (ICP-OES) and minor (ICP-MS) element data and fluid pH during interaction of simulated fracturing fluids with the Bowland-Hodder shale at a variety of conditions, i.e. fluid acidity (pH 1-5), temperature (25-70 C), and rock/fluid ratio (from 0.2:200 to 20:200), as well as two end member mineralogical compositions (from 618 m depth and 673 m depth). The data was collected under the SECURe (Subsurface Evaluation of CCS and Unconventional Risks funded under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 764531. Data supplied by permission of University of Nottingham and British Geological Survey.

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    This is a geochemical dataset accompanying Emmings, J., Poulton, S., Vane, C., Davies, S., Jenkin, G., Stephenson, M., Leng, M., Lamb, A., Moss-Hayes, V. A Mississippian Black Shale Record of Redox Oscillation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [submitted July 2019]. This dataset includes RockEval pyrolysis, major and trace element (XRF), Fe speciation, C, N and S isotopes and S species analyses through the Upper Bowland Shale in the Craven Basin (Lancashire, UK). This research was conducted by Joe Emmings, PhD researcher at the University of Leicester and British Geological Survey (BGS) between 2014-2018, and as a post-doctoral research associate (PDRA) at the British Geological Survey (2018-2021). The PhD research was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), as part of the Central England Training Alliance (CENTA) [grant no. NE/L002493/1] and received CASE funding from the BGS. PDRA research was funded by the British Geological Survey. Reproduction or manipulation of these data in future analyses should cite one or more of the following related publications (as necessary): Emmings, J., 2018. Controls on UK Lower Namurian Shale Gas Prospectivity: Understanding the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Organic Matter in Siliciclastic Mudstones. PhD Thesis, University of Leicester. Emmings J. et al. 2017. Stream and slope weathering effects on organic-rich mudstone geochemistry and implications for hydrocarbon source rock assessment: a Bowland Shale case study. Chemical Geology. 471. 74-91. Emmings, J. et al., 2019a. From Marine Bands to Hybrid Flows: Sedimentology of a Mississippian Black Shale. Sedimentology, [Accepted ms.]. Emmings, J.F. et al., 2019b. Controls on amorphous organic matter type and sulphurization in a Mississippian black shale. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 268: 1-18. Emmings, J.F. et al. A Mississippian black shale record of redox oscillation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [submitted July 2019] Co-workers: Sarah Davies (University of Leicester) - Primary PhD supervisor, sedimentology Chris Vane (BGS) - PhD supervisor, RockEval pyrolysis Mel Leng (BGS & University of Nottingham) - PhD supervisor, C & S isotopes Mike Stephenson (BGS) - PhD supervisor Simon Poulton (University of Leeds) - Fe speciation Gawen Jenkin (University of Leicester) - PhD supervisor Vicky Moss-Hayes (BGS) - RockEval pyrolysis Angela Lamb (BGS) - S isotopes

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    Primary data, model initial conditions, model results, a compiled database of olivine diffusivity experiments and supplementary tables used in the paper: 'Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid trans-crustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience'. Data_S1 contains electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) profile data of olivine crystals used in this study. This file also includes all of the initial conditions for forsterite content (XFo), Ni and Mn used in the diffusion modelling. Standard deviations are averaged values of standard deviations from counting statistics and repeat measurements of secondary standards. Data_S2 is a compiled database of olivine diffusion experiments used to derive multiple linear regressions for diffusion coefficients and associated covariance matrices. Regressions were only made through [001] data. Data_S3 contains median values for all of the inverted parameters estimated for each crystal profile from the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion for each type of initial condition and model equation. All of the Monte Carlo realisations for each model are also included in this file. Table_S1 is a supplementary table that contains olivine diffusion equation regression parameters derived and used as part of this study. Table_S2 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S3 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for aSiO2 (silica activity) dependent olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S4 is a supplementary table that contains angles between the EPMA profile and the main crystallographic axes in olivine as measured by EBSD. These angles are incorporated into the anisotropy calculation used to determine the apparent diffusivity parallel to the measured profile. angle100P, angle010P and angle001P are the angles between the profile and [100], [010] and [001] respectively. Table_S5 is a supplementary table that contains ,median timescales and 1 sigma errors obtained from the posterior distributions of the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion conducted on each olivine profile. The results using Al-based initial conditions, constant initial conditions (diffusion only), and aSiO2 based equations using Al-based initial conditions are presented here. The classification of each profile (growth-dominated vs. Al-decoupled) is also shown. See paper (Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid trans-crustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience) for more details.