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    Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry data, part of a suite of 51 elements using aqua regia ICP-MS techniques at ALS Minerals (Ireland).

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    This study explored the links between host rock composition, hydrothermal fluid composition (particularly pH), and the resulting ore minerals and deposits. The progressive water–rock reaction between 1 kg of initially acidic, condensed magmatic vapour and a series of different rock compositions was modelled with CHILLER (Reed, 1982, Reed, 1998), and follows the design of the water-rock reactions of Reed (1997). The thermodynamic data used in the numerical experiments are from the database SOLTHERM.H08 (Reed and Palandri, 2013). Data and calculations within SOLTHERM include: equilibrium constants calculated with SUPCRT92 (Johnson et al., 1992); mineral thermodynamic data for silicates, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, gases (Holland and Powell, 1998) and sulphides (Shock, 2007). Mineral solid solutions are represented by end-member compositions that are mixed using an ideal multisite mixing scheme. Rock compositions used in the modelling represent a sub-alkaline andesitic control, and a number of alkaline compositions associated with world-class Au deposits. All starting rock compositions are derived from whole rock geochemical data, and have been recalculated to a 100% basis without TiO2 or P2O5 (excluded as minor phases with little to no effect on hydrothermal mineral assemblages). Original total Fe (as Fe2O3) has been recalculated to FeO and Fe2O3 using the method of Müller et al. (2001). The andesite is representative of calc-alkaline, silica saturated compositions, and is derived from and discussed in detail in Reed (1997). The Luise “Phonolite” (a trachyandesite using the Le Maitre et al., 1989 TAS plot; Fig. 1) and Trachyandesite are from the vicinity of the Ladolam epithermal Au deposit, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea (Müller et al., 2001). The Porgera Mugearite and Feldspar Porphyry represent unaltered host rock compositions (Richards, 1990) from the Porgera Au deposit (Papua New Guinea). The Cripple Creek Phonolite is part of the host suite to the Cripple Creek epithermal Au deposit, Colorado (Kelley et al., 1998). The Savo trachyte (Smith et al., 2009) represents a typical host rock of the active hydrothermal system (Smith et al., 2010), on Savo island, Solomon Islands. With the exception of the Andesite, all compositions are alkaline using the total alkali versus silica definition of Irvine and Baragar (1971). The Savo sample is not associated with known epithermal Au mineralisation; this composition was selected on the grounds that it represents an evolved (SiO2-rich) silica-saturated, alkaline composition. The initial fluid composition is based on a condensate from Augustine volcano (Symonds et al., 1990) mixed 1:10 with pure water (Reed, 1997; Table 2). A single starting fluid for all models was chosen so as to demonstrate the effect of host rock alone.

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    Data from NERC grant, Natural Enrichments in E-tech Elements (Cobalt, Gallium, Indium, Tellurium, Lithium, rare earth elements) [NEETE].

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    Whole rock and sediment geochemical data covering a range of elements, where values are given in ppm (parts per million) or as a % (percentage). The data is ordered chronologically in an excel spreadsheet and each sample is given a ‘Sample ID’, ‘Lithology’, ‘Locality’, ‘Age’ and ‘Date analysed’, followed by whole rock and sediment values for the following elements; Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, TI, U, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr. Cells which are highlighted orange signify that the value given was below the detection limit. The values in orange cells have been halved to maintain spreadsheet functionality (i.e. to remove ‘<’ symbols). Cells which have been highlighted blue signify that the value given was above the detection limit. ALS method:ME-MS41L (https://www.alsglobal.com/en/services-and-products/geochemistry/geochemistry-testing-and-analysis/whole-rock-analysis-and-lithogeochemistry) . The majority of the samples included in this data were collected in the UK, but, where appropriate, samples out with the UK were included. The majority of the data was collected from 2014 to 2019. Whole rock and sediment samples were analysed by solution ICP-MS. Samples of ~30 g were individually milled and homogenised, and 0.5 g were digested with aqua regia in a graphite heating block. The residue was diluted with deionised water (18 M¿ cm), mixed, and analysed using a Varian 725 instrument at ALS Minerals (Loughrea; method ID: ME-MS41L). This data was collected to better understand the low temperature cycling of Telurium (Te) and Sellenium (Se) in the geological environment. For example, a range of ochre samples were included in this database. Ochres are a modern precipitate commonly found in rivers and streams which flow through geographical areas with a history of mining resources which are rich in sulphides. Iron from the sulphides are leached out and deposited downstream, coating river and stream beds, giving a red, yellow or orange colouration. Ochres can be a sink for trace metals, so analysing the abundances of these can be informative from a resource perspective but also from an environmental hazard perspective. This would be useful for researchers who require reference data for whole rock and sediment data of a particular lithology or age. This data is was collected by, but not limited to the following individuals; John Parnell, Sam Spinks, Josef Armstrong, Liam A Bullock, Magali Perez, Xueying Wang & Connor Brolly.

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    Pyrite samples from selected sedimentary organic-rich formations or associated igneous and metamorphic rocks were analysed by conventional S isotopic analysis. Pyrites were measured in order to provide insights into their origin. Light and variable S isotope compositions in pyrite have been used to infer the influence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (and subsequent Se precipitation by sulphate-reducing microbes), whereas heavier S isotope compositions indicate a non-biological origin (i.e. physical and chemical diagenesis).