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    Digital hourly mean values of the Geomagnetic field elements from Lerwick, Eskdalemuir, Abinger and Hartland Observatories. Eskdalemuir data are available from 1911, Lerwick from 1926, Hartland from 1957 and all three are available up to yesterday's date. Values from Abinger (1926-1956) are available on request. Most data are definitive, but recent data (within the last 203 years) are provisional and may be corrected in the future. Values of declination (D), horizontal intensity (H) and vertical intensity (Z) are available. The units of declination are degrees. Declination is negative when west of true north. The units of horizontal intensity and vertical intensity are nT (nanotesla). Vertical intensity is positive in the downwards direction. The data from these observatories will not only aid scientific research into rates of change of the magnetic field and increase the accuracy of the BGS Global Geomagnetic Model, but will also provide data to exploration geophysicists engaged in current and future oil exploration.

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    The data sets contain the daily record of meters of groundwater columns for 7 Heron logger transducers installed in different boreholes and wells in the study area. Missing data denoted -9999. The Barlog data for atmospheric pressure (Atmospheric Pressure data measured by Heron Barologger for the period of April 2014 to November 2018 at Munje Jabalini.) is also included. "Uncomp.HT.WTR. Above Transducer" corresponds to the actual pressure the dipperLog is measuring. "Barologger Data" corresponds to the Barlog data for atmospheric pressure at Munje Jabalini "Comp.Depth.WTR Below the Datum" is the "Depth below datum" entered in the logger setup less "Comp.HT.WTR. Above Transducer". The data was collected by Albert Folch and Nuria Ferrer (UPC), Mike Lane and Calvince Wara (Rural Focus Ltd). The PI on the Gro for GooD project was Prof. Rob Hope, University of Oxford.

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    This set of data is the second set of impact interviews conducted with the target communities of the BRAVE project. The interviews are transcriptions in Microsoft word. The communities involved in the data collection were from Tomo and Poa in Burkina Faso and Jawani and Tariganga in Ghana. There are 32 interviews from Burkinabe community members, and 23 from the Ghanaian communities. Individuals were selected based on their participation in the BRAVE field activity of the Farmer Voice Radio. The data was collected between October 2019 and February 2020 by the local researchers. This data methodology was built on the initial vulnerability assessments, and include questions around behaviour change and income change based on the BRAVE communities activities of ground water measurement and water management strategies. This data shows behaviour and livelihood change within the communities and due to these activities. This is final qualitative impacts dataset from the BRAVE project. Previous linked data sets include the baseline vulnerability assessments and the first round of impact interviews. BRAVE: Building understanding of climate variability into planning of groundwater supplies from low storage aquifers in Africa BRAVE is a ‘Consortium’ research project is part of the UPGro (Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor) programme.

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    This data set consists of sets of qualitative data in the form of vulnerability questionnaires (referred to as tool 1) and interviews (referred to as Tool 2) from 4 communities - 2 in Northern Ghana and 2 in Burkina Faso.

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    Collection of annual publications from the global network of magnetic observatories. They typically contain tabulations of hourly, monthly and annual mean values of the geomagnetic elements. Contains all magnetic observatory year books held by the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism (Edinburgh).

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    QICS (Quantifying and monitoring environmental impacts of geological carbon storage) was a program funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), with support from the Scottish Government (May 2010 - December 2014) with two objectives. Firstly, to assess if any significant environmental impact would arise, if a leak from sub-sea, deep geological storage of carbon dioxide occurred. Secondly, to test and recommend tools and strategies for monitoring for (or assuring the absence of) leakage at the sea floor and in overlying waters. This data set provides a short overview of the novel experimental procedure - a world first leakage simulation in the natural environment and describes the experimental set up, sampling strategy including both temporal and spatial details. The data set consists of a pdf containing a text based project and experimental overview, a table outlining the temporal evolution of the experiment, including site selection, set up, baseline, impact and recovery phases and a diagram outlining the spatial sampling strategy. This data set contains an overview document collated by Plymouth Marine Laboratory. This provides the context for a number of specific related QICS datasets submitted to the UKCCS data archive, covering a range of geological, chemical and ecological information. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html. Blackford et al., 2014. Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage. Nature Climate Change 4, 1011-1016. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2381. Taylor et al., 2015. A novel sub-seabed CO2 release experiment informing monitoring and impact assessment for geological carbon storage. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control. DOI:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.09.007.

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    The QICS project (Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbons Storage) was established to improve our understanding of the potential impacts of CO2 release on the environment and to develop tools and best practice for monitoring sub-seabed CCS reservoirs. To monitor the potential impact of a CO2 leak to surficial benthic megafauna, cages of bivalves (the common mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 and the king scallop Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)) were deployed at the gas release site and at a reference site in the QICS experiment - both within Ardmucknish Bay, Oban, Scotland. Replicate individuals were sampled at six time points over a 125-day period, which spanned both the 37-day injection and recovery phases of the experiment, in order to establish impacts to molecular physiology. Samples of bivalves were also simultaneously sampled from a reference site within the bay in order to contrast changes in physiology induced by the gas release with naturally variability in the physiological performance of both species. There was no evidence of gene regulation of either selected carbonic anhydrases (CAx genes) or the alpha subunit of sodium potassium ATPAses (ATP1A genes) in individual bivalves collected from the CO2 gas release site, in either species. In the common mussel Mytilus edulis there was only evidence for changes with time in the expression of genes coding for different classes of carbonic anhydrase. It was concluded that the effects of the plume of elevated pCO2 on ion-regulatory gene transcription were negligible in both species. Pratt et al. 2015. No evidence for impacts to the molecular ecophysiology of ion or CO2 regulation in tissues of selected surface-dwelling bivalves in the vicinity of a sub-seabed CO2 release. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. DOI:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10.001. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html.

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    This report has been superseded by the paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583617301081. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31. The NERC-funded QICS controlled CO2 release experiment (located offshore Oban, Scotland) mimics the formation of a new CO2 seep in the marine environment. At the site, CO2 is injected at an onshore well head, and a stainless steel pipe transports the CO2 under the seabed. Approximately 350 m offshore, the CO2 is released through a perforated screen into the 12 metres of overlying marine sediment, which is at approximately 10 metres water depth. During spring/summer 2012, 4.2 tonnes of CO2 was released at the QICS experimental site. A key element of risk assessment for the subsurface storage of CO2 is the monitoring of leaks from the subsurface in to the marine or terrestrial environments via sediments and soils. Chemical 'fingerprinting' of injected CO2 is widely considered a low cost, highly effective monitoring option, since effective application of tracers in CCS could provide information on (i) the movement, interaction and fate of injected CO2 in the subsurface and (ii) the detection (and quantification) of CO2 that has leaked from the storage complex to the surface. There is a need to develop geochemical techniques to differentiate between CO2 from natural processes, and the QICS site may provide excellent opportunity to trial geochemical tracers. This work aims to determine which chemical tracers are most suitable for CO2 tracing at the QICS facility and the research questions that tracer application can address. As such, this report includes: i. A review of current potential chemical tracers for CCS and their applications. ii. An analysis and comparison of costs, availability, environmental impact and detection limits for potential tracers. iii. An assessment of the above in the context of QICS (i.e: considering the CO2 will be released from the seabed (having passed from dense to gas phase), and having passed through water saturated sediment of the seabed, and into the water column. iv. An overview of the legal considerations for tracers in the UK. v. The injection method for tracers at the QICS site. vi. Required strategies for sampling the selected tracer. vii. Identify knowledge gaps in tracer studies which experiments at the QICS site could address.

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    The NERC-funded QICS controlled CO2 release experiment (located offshore Oban, Scotland) mimics the formation of a new CO2 seep in the marine environment. At the site, CO2 is injected at an onshore well head, and a stainless steel pipe transports the CO2 under the seabed. Approximately 350 m offshore, the CO2 is released through a perforated screen into the 12 metres of overlying marine sediment, which is at approximately 10 metres water depth. During spring/summer 2012, 4.2 tonnes of CO2 was released at the QICS experimental site. CO2 bubbles emerged from the seafloor ~30m to the west of the site and individual plumes covered a total area of ~ 350m2. Bubble stream location was recording using audio (acoustic) and visual techniques (photography, video). Both techniques are useful for recording the general location of plumes. However their 2D nature made it hard to characterise individual plumes and their exact locations. The QICS1 experiment included 200 deployments/recoveries of instruments, collection of 1,300 samples, and installation of 1600 m of cable and placement of 24 cages of indicator species on the seabed. In order to aid planning and operation during potential further experiments at the site it would be beneficial to utilise a robust and accurate method of recording the locations of equipment, samples and CO2 bubble streams. In this review, the four main types of submarine geolocation technologies are detailed and compared, and best available models (as of June 2013) are detailed. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31.

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    This review details the laboratory experiments that have investigated leakage of geologically stored CO2 (as of June 2013). These experiments have covered a range of leakage factors. Knowledge of these factors can both compliment and help inform any future experiments at the QICS site. As such, the report details what experiments have been performed in the lab to date, how lab experiments can inform QICS and how QICS could inform laboratory experiments. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31.