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Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Microbial Lipids in Geothermal Deposits: Elucidating Thermophilic Ecology. Lipid biomarkers were extracted and fractionated using standard methods. They were analysed via GC-MS for identification and determination of lipid distributions and abundances, and via GC-C-IRMS for carbon isotopic compositions. These methods, except for GC-IRMS, are available in in Kaur et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1007/s00792-014-0719-9. GC-IRMS methods are the same as those used in Badger et al. (2013) DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2013.0094 Sinters were collected from six active geothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand. Champagne Pool is located in the Waiotapu geothermal system. Opaheke Pool is located in the Reporoa Caldera situated approximately 6 km south of the Waiotapu geothermal field. These two fields are believed to be hydrologically linked (Nairn et al., 1994). Loop Road hot springs are situated in a flat, low-lying alluvial plain, a few kilometres south of Waiotapu. The Orakei Korako geothermal region is approximately 2 km2 in area and is located on the eastern margin of the Moroa Volcanic Centre. OK1 was sampled from the edge of Fred and Maggie Pool, whilst OK2 and OK3 were sampled from the outflow channel; OK1D originates from Diamond Geyser. The Sinter Flat area of Rotokawa is a cluster of geothermal springs on the northern margin of Lake Rotokawa that have created a flat terrace, mostly covered in hot pools. Further details of these sites are available in Kaur et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1007/s00792-014-0719-9.
Analysed trace element data and radiocarbon data from five existing marine sediment cores from the NE Pacific margin (45-50N) that intersects the major water masses of the N Pacific, from a depth transect (700-3300m)
These data were collected to study oxidative weathering processes in the Waiapu River catchment, New Zealand, with potential carbon release sourced from the oxidation of petrogenic organic carbon or carbonate dissolution coupled to the oxidation of sulfide minerals. There, in mudstones exposed in a highly erosive gully complex, in situ CO2 emissions were measured with drilled gas accumulation chambers following the design by Soulet et al. (2018, Biogeosciences 15, 4087-4102, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-4087-2018). Temporal and spatial variability in CO2 flux can be put in context with environmental changes (e.g., temperature and hydrology). For this, CO2 release from 5 different chambers, which were installed over a transect of ~ 10 m length in a gully above a nearby streambed, was measured several times over a short study period (circa one week). In addition, the gaseous CO2 storage (partial pressure) in the shallow weathering zone was measured prior to a CO2 flux measurement. To understand the source of CO2, gas samples were collected and their stable and radioactive carbon isotope compositions determined. In this process, we identified a contaminant, which was associated with the chamber installation, that can be traced in the gas samples that were collected within 4 days following the installation. Details of the subsequent data analysis and interpretation can be found in: Roylands et al. 2022, Chemical Geology: Capturing the short-term variability of carbon dioxide emissions from sedimentary rock weathering in a remote mountainous catchment, New Zealand. This work was supported by the European Research Council (Starting Grant to Robert G. Hilton, ROC-CO2 project, grant 678779).
Stratigraphic and ecological data from tidal marsh sites in south-central Chile. Includes stratigraphy, diatom assemblages and radiocarbon dates from fossil cores and diatom assemblages from modern tidal marsh samples. Data were collected to provide evidence for multiple great earthquakes in south-central Chile, and enable the reconstruction of vertical land-level changes associated with these earthquakes. Data are from tidal marsh sites within the 1960 earthquake rupture area along the Chilean subduction zone (37.5 - 46 degrees South).
Surface waters and shallow groundwater samples were collected by completely filling 30 mL polyethylene bottles, which were then sealed with electrical tape to minimise the risk of evaporative loss. Rainwater samples were integrated samples of total monthly rainfall collected in a specially-adapted rainfall collector following IAEA protocols (IAEA http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/ih/documents/userupdate/sampling.pdf [accessed 22 June 2012). Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were determined simultaneously using a 'Picarro' WS-CRDS system at the University of Liverpool or the University of Cambridge. Jamaica, Parish of St Elizabeth. Wallywash Great Pond (lat: 17.9716°; long: -77.8068°) (lake water and groundwater samples) and Pon de Rock Guest House (lat: 17.9156°; long: -77.7973°) (rainwater samples). Refer to accompanying map for the precise location of the lake water sampling sites
This dataset includes the (stable) oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of benthic foraminifer tests (n= 686) and the (radiogenic) isotopic composition of the terrigenous fraction of marine sediments (n= 75), all sampled from Eocene to Oligocene-aged sediments recovered at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 689 and 690 (Maud Rise, Southern Ocean)
Data collected as part of the NERC funded Radioactivity and the Environment (RATE), Long-lived Radionuclides in the Surface Environment (Lo-RISE), research consortium.This data comes from the marine workstream group based at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) and the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The data consists of radionuclide measurements of environmental and biological samples including radiocarbon, caesium (137), americium (241) and plutonium (238, 239, 240).The data has been published in the following publications: Tierney et al., 2018. Modelling Marine Trophic Transfer of Radiocarbon (14C) from a Nuclear Facility. Ecosystem Modelling and Software 102, 138-154. Tierney et al., 2017. Nuclear Reprocessing-Related Radiocarbon (14C) Uptake into UK Marine Mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 124, 43-50. Muir et al., 2017. Ecosystem Uptake and Transfer of Sellafield-Derived Radiocarbon (14C). Part 1: The Irish Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 114, 792-804. Tierney et al., 2017. Ecosystem Uptake and Transfer of Sellafield-Derived Radiocarbon (14C). Part 2: The West of Scotland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 115, 57-66 Tierney et al., 2016. Accumulation of Sellafield-derived 14C in Irish Sea and West of Scotland Intertidal Shells and Sediments. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 151, 321-327.
Stable Isotope and trace element analyses (Ca, Sr, Mg, Fe and Mn concentrations) derived from Cretaceous Belemnites including Duvalia tornajoensis, D. cf. lata constricta, D. binervia, D. cf. emericii, Hibolithes, H. cf. jaculoides, Berriasibelus, Castellanibelus and Pseudobelus.
The data set consists of rock samples collected from Coquetdale, Coldstream and Whitrope Burn from 2013-2014; milled material is included. There is an Excel spreadsheet of sample numbers with location, sample height on log, d13C data and %C. There are scans of field logs from Coquetdale, Coldstream and Whitrope Burn, and Illustrator drawn logs from Coldstream which include samples collected at a later date. Scans of thin sections are also included. (thin sections to be kept at Leicester for the time being – still being worked on for papers.) Each locality folder has an Excel spreadsheet detailing samples, sample height, %C and bulk and specific d13C values. These data were used to interpret the environment in which early tetrapods have been found in the early Carboniferous. These data supported the MPhil thesis 'In an alternating marine and non-marine depositional setting, where and how are early Carboniferous tetrapods preserved?' by Sherwin, 2018, and one publication including data from Whitrope Burn - Richards et al., 2018, (https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755691018000166).
The dataset contains geochemical measurements which quantify the amount and source of carbon in organic matter of sediments from Lake Paringa, New Zealand. Measurements were made on a 6 m sediment core collected in 2015 from the lake bed using a Mackereth corer (PA6m1a). The core was correlated to master core PA1 which has a well-established age-depth model based on accelerator mass spectrometry measurements of the radiocarbon (14C) content of terrestrial macrofossils (Howarth et al., 2016). In addition, soil samples were collected using a soil auger from two elevation transects in westland, New Zealand in 2016 and 2017 (from Mt. Fox and Alex Knob). All sediment samples were freeze dried and ground to homogenise them prior to geochemical analyses. Organic carbon concentration (%) and the stable isotopic composition of organic carbon (δ13C) was measured (Frith et al., 2018) following the removal of carbonate minerals (0.25 M hydrochloric acid for 4 hours at approximately 70 °C) by combustion of sediment at 1,020 °C in a Costech Elemental Analyser coupled via a CONFLO III to a Thermo Scientific Delta V Advantage stable isotope mass spectrometer. Total nitrogen content (N, %) and its isotopic composition (δ15N) was measured by combustion of untreated samples in a Costech Elemental Analyser with a CARBOSORB trap to inhibit large CO2 peaks from affecting measurements. A subset of samples were selected for analysis of the radiocarbon activity (14C, reported as F14C) of bulk organic matter by accelerator mass spectrometry after graphitization. A subset of sediment samples from the lake core and soil samples were selected for the analysis of biomarker abundance and their hydrogen isotope composition. We focused on the extraction of n-alkanes from aliquots of lake sediment (~2 g) using established methods (Wang et al., 2020). These measurements are reported in the dataset as the abundance of n-alkanes (chain lengths C21 to C35) in ug/g of sediment (and sum of chain lengths and ratios - carbon preference index). Finally, the dataset includes outputs of organic matter provenance: modelled elevation and depth, as described in Wang et al., (2020). In the datafile, the sample elevation and depth are provided. The labels for data are as follows. For down core sediment samples from Lake Paringa, they are labelled with the core code (PA6m1), and the sampling interval in centimetres (PA6m1_x). Soil samples from an elevation transect from Mt Fox (MF-YY-a) are labelled with a distinct code for each site (YY) and sub-code for each soil depth (a). Soil samples from an elevation transect of Alex Knob (5.Z.z) are labelled based on sub-site (Z) and soil depth (z).