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Carbon capture and storage

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    Amine atmospheric chemistry kinetic mechanism and related Gaussian 09 electronic structure outputs. A text document with a chemical kinetic reaction mechanism appropriate for the atmospheric chemistry of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) and piperazine (PIP). This consists of reactions of AMP and PIP with OH, NO2 and Cl considering the various possible hydrogen atom abstraction pathways available to each. These are considered the most important in the context of the likely atmospheric composition at sites where carbon dioxide amine based capture technology would be deployed. For completeness, additional reactions are reported of AMP and PIP with N2O3 leading to their adduct with NO, reactions of AMP and PIP radicals with OH and reactions of the PIP adduct with oxygen and PIP adduct with NO2 each producing an Imine. For each reaction is reported the Gibbs activation energy and the resulting rate constant for atmospheric conditions. The word document gives a description of the methodology used in the Gaussian 09 electronic structure calculation software and the resulting outputs in terms of the constituent atom cartesian coordinates, electronic configuration and energy for 77 distinct configurations of chemical reactant, product, and the intermediate step between reactant and product. UKCCSRC Flexible Funding 2021: Advancements in mixed amine atmospheric kinetic models.

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    Provided here are the experimental data for the synthesis and characterisation of crystallinity and CO2 capture performance of Ce-based metal-organic frameworks. For more details on this material, please find the information in the following open-access paper: 10.26434/chemrxiv.13252544.v2. The project took place at Swansea University, Bay Campus, in the Energy Safety Research institute from 1st October until the 31st December 2021. The material was characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to ensure crystallinity and CO2 sorption analysis for comparison of CO2 capture performance with the pristine material’s performance. This material showed promising CO2 capture in previous experiments and is of interest to researchers working on the development of porous materials. All data collected during the project is provided. UKCCSRC Flexible Funding 2021: Scale up of F4_MIL-140(Ce) for next generation carbon capture (F4-Next-CC)

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    During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a preliminary Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study has yielded invaluable knowledge on areas including project design, technical design, health and safety, environment, consents and project management. The E.ON UK FEED study material is available for download.

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    In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what exactly would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland (Goldeneye) through to construction. The study has yielded invaluable knowledge in areas such as cost, design, end-to-end CCS chain operation, health and safety, environment, consent and permitting, risk management, and lessons learnt. The ScottishPower CCS Consortium FEED study material are available for download.

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    The solubility of water (H2O) in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) mixtures (xN2 = 0.050 and 0.100, mole fraction) has been investigated at 25 and 40 degrees C in the pressure range between 8 and 18 MPa. The motivation for this work is to aid the understanding of water solubility in complex CO2-based mixtures, which is required for the safety of anthropogenic CO2 transport via pipeline for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The measurements have been performed using an FTIR spectroscopic approach and demonstrate that this method is a suitable technique to determine the concentration of water in both pure CO2 and CO2 + N2 mixtures. The presence of N2 lowers the mole concentration of water in CO2 by up to 42% for a given pressure in the studied conditions and this represents important data for the development of pipelines for CCS. This work also provides preliminary indications that the key parameters for the solubility of H2O in such CO2 + N2 mixtures are the temperature and the overall density of the fluid mixture and not solely the given pressure of the CCS mixture. This could have implications for understanding the parameters required to be monitored during the safer transportation of CO2 mixtures in CCS pipelines. The paper is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583615000444, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.002. UKCCSRC Grants UKCCSRC-C1-21 and UKCCSRC-C2-185.

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    The detection and quantification of an underwater gas release are becoming increasingly important for oceanographic and industrial applications. Whilst the detection of each individual bubble injection events, with commensurate sizing from the natural frequency of the acoustic emission, has been common for decades in laboratory applications, it is impractical to do this when hundreds of bubbles are released simultaneously, as can occur with large methane seeps, or leaks from gas pipelines or undersea facilities for carbon capture and storage. This paper draws on data from two experimental studies and demonstrates the usefulness of passive acoustics to monitor gas leaks of this level. It firstly shows experimental validation tests of a recent model aimed at inverting the acoustic emissions of gas releases in a water tank. Different gas flow rates for two different nozzle types are estimated using this acoustic inversion and compared to measurements from a mass flow meter. The estimates are found to predict accurately volumes of released gas. Secondly, this paper demonstrates the use of this method at sea in the framework of the QICS project (controlled release of CO2 gas). The results in the form of gas flow rate estimates from bubbles are presented. These track, with good agreement, the injected gas and correlate within an order of magnitude with diver measurements. Data also suggest correlation with tidal effects with a decrease of 15.1 kg d-1 gas flow for every 1 m increase in tidal height (equivalent to 5.9 L/min when converted to standard ambient temperature [25 °C] and absolute pressure [100 kPa] conditions, SATP). This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Peter Taylor et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.008.

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    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to potentially mitigate global warming by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial facilities and power generation that escape into the atmosphere. To broaden the usage of geological storage as a viable climate mitigation option, it is vital to understand CO2 behaviour after its injection within a storage reservoir, including its potential migration through overlying sediments, as well as biogeochemical and ecological impacts in the event of leakage. The impacts of a CO2 release were investigated by a controlled release experiment that injected CO2 at a known flux into shallow, under-consolidated marine sediments for 37 days. Repeated high-resolution 2D seismic reflection surveying, both pre-release and syn-release, allows the detection of CO2-related anomalies, including: seismic chimneys; enhanced reflectors within the subsurface; and bubbles within the water column. In addition, reflection coefficient and seismic attenuation values calculated for each repeat survey, allow the impact of CO2 flux on sediment acoustic properties to be comparatively monitored throughout the gas release. CO2 migration is interpreted as being predominantly controlled by sediment stratigraphy in the early stages of the experiment. However, either the increasing flow rate, or the total injected volume become the dominant factors determining CO2 migration later in the experiment. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Peter Taylor et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.03.005.

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    The dynamic characteristics of CO2 bubbles in Scottish seawater are investigated through observational data obtained from the QICS project. Images of the leaked CO2 bubble plume rising in the seawater were captured. This observation made it possible to discuss the dynamics of the CO2 bubbles in plumes leaked in seawater from the sediments. Utilising ImageJ, an image processing program, the underwater recorded videos were analysed to measure the size and velocity of the CO2 bubbles individually. It was found that most of the bubbles deform to non-spherical bubbles and the measured equivalent diameters of the CO2 bubbles observed near the sea bed are to be between 2 and 12 mm. The data processed from the videos showed that the velocities of 75% of the leaked CO2 bubbles in the plume are in the interval 25-40 cm/s with Reynolds numbers (Re) 500-3500, which are relatively higher than those of an individual bubble in quiescent water. The drag coefficient Cd is compared with numerous laboratory investigations, where agreement was found between the laboratory and the QICS experimental results with variations mainly due to the plume induced vertical velocity component of the seawater current and the interactions between the CO2 bubbles (breakup and coalescence). The breakup of the CO2 bubbles has been characterised and defined by Eötvös number, Eo, and Re. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Nazmi Sellami et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.011.

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    Carbon capture and storage is a mitigation strategy that can be used to aid the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This process aims to capture CO2 from large point-source emitters and transport it to a long-term storage site. For much of Europe, these deep storage sites are anticipated to be sited below the sea bed on continental shelves. A key operational requirement is an understanding of best practice of monitoring for potential leakage and of the environmental impact that could result from a diffusive leak from a storage complex. Here we describe a controlled CO2 release experiment beneath the seabed, which overcomes the limitations of laboratory simulations and natural analogues. The complex processes involved in setting up the experimental facility and ensuring its successful operation are discussed, including site selection, permissions, communications and facility construction. The experimental design and observational strategy are reviewed with respect to scientific outcomes along with lessons learnt in order to facilitate any similar future. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Peter Taylor et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.09.007.

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    This paper explores the social dimensions of an experimental release of carbon dioxide (CO2) carried out in Ardmucknish Bay, Argyll, United Kingdom. The experiment, which aimed to understand detectability and potential effects on the marine environment should there be any leakage from a CO2 storage site, provided a rare opportunity to study the social aspects of a carbon dioxide capture and storage-related event taking place in a lived-in environment. Qualitative research was carried out in the form of observation at public information events about the release, in-depth interviews with key project staff and local stakeholders/community members, and a review of online media coverage of the experiment. Focusing mainly on the observation and interview data, we discuss three key findings: the role of experience and analogues in learning about unfamiliar concepts like CO2 storage; the challenge of addressing questions of uncertainty in public engagement; and the issue of when to commence engagement and how to frame the discussion. We conclude that whilst there are clearly slippages between a small-scale experiment and full-scale CCS, the social research carried out for this project demonstrates that issues of public and stakeholder perception are as relevant for offshore CO2 storage as they are for onshore. Published in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Leslie Mabon et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10.022