Carbon capture and storage
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The data consists of an extended abstract submitted to 'The Fourth International Conference on Fault and Top Seals', Almeria, Spain, 20-24th September 2015. The abstract describes work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. The CO2-rich St. Johns Dome reservoir in Arizona provides a useful analogue for leaking CO2 storage sites, and the abstract describes an analysis of the fault-seal behaviour at the site. http://earthdoc.eage.org/publication/publicationdetails/?publication=82673.
The objective of the EU SiteChar Project was to facilitate the implementation of CO2 geological storage in Europe by developing a methodology for the assessment of potential storage sites and the preparation of storage permit applications. Research was conducted through a strong collaboration of experienced industrial and academic research partners aiming to advance a portfolio of sites to a (near-) completed feasibility stage, ready for detailed front-end engineering and design and produce practical guidelines for site characterisation. SiteChar was a 3 year project supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme. The Final Report can be downloaded from http://cordis.europa.eu/docs/results/256/256705/final1-sitechar-finalreport.pdf.
This Proposal focuses on the determination of the dew point of water (H2O), or “water solubility”, in impure CO2 mixtures (e.g. containing nitrogen, N2, oxygen, O2, hydrogen, H2, or mixtures of N2 + H2). The proposed work is a direct result of new findings in our project under Call 1, where we have obtained highly reproducible data for water solubility in CO2 + N2 using infrared spectroscopy and are well on the way to implementing an independent route using the so-called “Karl-Fischer” titration technique to give independent validation of our results. We have shown that the solubility of H2O is significantly reduced by the presence of even low concentrations of N2, a finding which has direct implications on anthropogenic CO2 transportation pipeline specifications and operation (e.g. internal corrosion). Such data have been identified by the Advanced Power Generation Technology Forum (APGTF) and the priorities specified in the UKCCRC Research And Pathways to Impact Delivery (RAPID) Handbook as being crucial for developing safe CO2 transportation in both the gaseous and dense phase. This Project has been designed to fill gaps in the available data, which are crucial for the safe implementation of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) because liquid water is highly acidic in the presence of excess CO2; this acidity can be increased by trace amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and this acidity will greatly accelerate corrosion in transportation pipelines and can cause further problems in sub-surface storage. Keeping water and CO2 in a single phase during transportation will largely avoid these problems. In Call 1, we set out to design and develop two complementary experimental approaches using either Infrared spectroscopy or Karl-Fischer titration. The key is now to understand the major implications for the complex range of CCS mixtures. A further complication is that the phase behaviour is highly dependent on both composition and temperature, therefore in order to fully understand the behaviour of water in the context of CCS requires further measurements. For this project we are targeting the needs outlined by National Grid in their letter for pre-combustion CCS where H2 is a likely contaminant. We have obtained preliminary data for H2 which shows that the effects may be greater than for N2, but this needs full validation. Furthermore, we propose to test the widespread assumption that the behaviour of O2 impurities will mirror that of N2. O2 is important in CCS coupled to the oxyfuel technology. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-185.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Advanced Sorbents for CCS via Controlled Sintering was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-206. Calcium looping shows significant promise for CO2 capture. The process can lead to an energy penalty as low as 6 - 8 % including the compression of the lean CO2 stream, compared to 9.5 - 12.5 % for amine-based post-combustion capture. To implement this technology on an industrial scale, a large quantity of CaO-based sorbent will be required, therefore the sorbent must be capable of being regenerated and reused.
This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, North Sea aquifer mapping, was presented at the Cambridge Biannual, 02.04.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project, Towards more flexible power generation with CCS, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-214.
EU is required to reduce its CO2 emissions by 8% by 2008-2012, later deeper cuts are foreseen. CO2 underground storage is one of the few options that can meet these obligations. The present project investigates four new potential cases for CO2-reservoirs, mainly on land. It will continue reservoir simulations and study geochemical reactions to develop final-fate prediction models. This will be supported by new seismic observations. At the same time gravimetrics is introduced as a new method better suited on land. This proposal builds directly on the Thermie/5FP SACS2 project results, which involved monitoring and modelling the injection of CO2 into the Utsira Sand aquifer, at Sleipner gas field, offshore Norway.
This report presents a set of pragmatic and workable generic procedures, suggested best practices and other recommendations and observations for the safe and sustainable closure of geological CO2 storage sites. These have been distilled from the results of the CO2CARE project and represent the most important messages that will be of benefit to Regulators, storage site Operators and other stakeholders. The report can be downloaded from http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/512805/
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project, CO2 Flow Metering through Multi-Modal Sensing and Statistical Data Fusion, was presented at the Cardiff Biannual, 10.09.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-218.
Data derived from UKCCSRC Call 2 Project C2-181. The journal article can be found at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.05.222. The sorption enhanced steam reforming (SE-SMR) of methane over the surface of 18 wt. % Ni/Al2O3 catalyst and using CaO as a CO2-sorbent is simulated for an adiabatic packed bed reactor. The developed model accounts for all the aspects of mass and energy transfer, in both gas and solid phase along the axial direction of the reactor. The process was studied under temperature and pressure conditions used in industrial SMR operations. The simulation results were compared with equilibrium calculations and modelling data from literature. A good agreement was obtained in terms of CH4 conversion, hydrogen yield (wt. % of CH4 feed), purity of H2 and CO2 capture under the different operation conditions such as temperature, pressure, steam to carbon ratio (S/C) and gas mass flux. A pressure of 30 bar, 923 K and S/C of 3 can result in CH4 conversion and H2 purity up to 65% and 85% respectively compared to 24% and 49% in the conventional process.