Carbon capture and storage
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Carbon capture and storage in sub-seabed geological formations (sub-seabed CCS) is currently being studied as a realistic option to mitigate the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In implementing sub-seabed CCS, detecting and monitoring the impact of the sequestered CO2 on the ocean environment is highly important. The first controlled CO2 release experiment, Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbon Storage (QICS), took place in Ardmucknish Bay, Oban, in May–September 2012. We applied the in situ pH/pCO2 sensor to the QICS experiment for detection and monitoring of leaked CO2, and carried out several observations. The cabled real-time sensor was deployed close to the CO2 leakage (bubbling) area, and the fluctuations of in situ pH and pCO2 above the seafloor were monitored in a land-based container. The long-term sensor was placed on seafloor in three different observation zones. The sediment pH sensor was inserted into the sediment at a depth of 50 cm beneath the seafloor near the CO2 leakage area. Wide-area mapping surveys of pH and pCO2 in water column around the CO2 leakage area were carried out by using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) installed with sensors. Atmospheric CO2 above the leakage area was observed by using a CO2 analyzer that was attached to the bow of ship of 50 cm above the sea-surface. The behavior of the leaked CO2 is highly dependent on the tidal periodicity (low tide or high tide) during the CO2 gas release period. At low tide, the pH in sediment and overlying seawater decreased due to strong eruption of CO2 gas bubbles, and the CO2 ascended to sea-surface quickly with a little dissolution to seawater and dispersed into the atmosphere. On the other hand, the CO2 bubbles release was lower at high tide due to higher water pressure, and slight low pH seawater and high atmospheric CO2 were detected. After stopping CO2 gas injection, no remarkable variations of pH in sediment and overlying water column were observed for three months. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Kiminori Shitashima et. al. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.12.011.
Technical report from CO2MultiStore project, component of ‘Optimising CO2 storage in geological formations: a case study offshore Scotland, September 2015. The report captures knowledge gained from the process, progress and findings of the research that is applicable to the development of any multi-user storage resource. Available for download at http://hdl.handle.net/1842/16475.
The SACS Best Practice Manual consists of two parts. The first part outlines the operational experiences gained during the Sleipner CO2 injection operation. The second part consists of recommendations based on the monitoring the Sleipner CO2 injection operation during the SACS project. The report can be downloaded from http://www.ieaghg.org/docs/General_Docs/Reports/SACS%20Best%20Practise%20Manual.pdf.
In January 1993, as part of the Joule II Non-nuclear Energy Research Programme, the European Commission initiated a two year study of the potential for the disposal of industrial quantifies of carbon dioxide underground, with a view to reducing emissions to the atmosphere. The participants in the study were the British Geological Survey (UK), TNO Institute of Applied Geoscience (The Netherlands), BRGM (France), CRE Group Ltd (UK), IKU Petroleum Research (Norway), RWE AG (Germany), University of Sunderland Renewable Energy Centre (UK) and Statoil (Norway). The objective of the study was to examine whether carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources such as power stations, could be disposed of safely, economically and with no adverse effects on man and the environment. doi:10.1016/0196-8904(95)00308-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0196890495003088
The aim of this proposal is to develop and validate a multi-phase flow model for simulating the highly transient flow phenomena taking place in the well-bore during start-up injection of CO2 mixtures into depleted gas fields. The objectives are to: 1.demonstrate the usefulness of the model developed based on its application to a real system as a test case; 2.use the findings in (1) to propose optimum injection strategies and develop Best Practice Guidelines for minimising the risks associated with the start-up injection of CO2 into depleted gas reservoirs. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-183.
The solubility of water (H2O) in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) mixtures (xN2 = 0.050 and 0.100, mole fraction) has been investigated at 25 and 40 degrees C in the pressure range between 8 and 18 MPa. The motivation for this work is to aid the understanding of water solubility in complex CO2-based mixtures, which is required for the safety of anthropogenic CO2 transport via pipeline for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The measurements have been performed using an FTIR spectroscopic approach and demonstrate that this method is a suitable technique to determine the concentration of water in both pure CO2 and CO2 + N2 mixtures. The presence of N2 lowers the mole concentration of water in CO2 by up to 42% for a given pressure in the studied conditions and this represents important data for the development of pipelines for CCS. This work also provides preliminary indications that the key parameters for the solubility of H2O in such CO2 + N2 mixtures are the temperature and the overall density of the fluid mixture and not solely the given pressure of the CCS mixture. This could have implications for understanding the parameters required to be monitored during the safer transportation of CO2 mixtures in CCS pipelines. The paper is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583615000444, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.002. UKCCSRC Grants UKCCSRC-C1-21 and UKCCSRC-C2-185.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project CO2 storage in Palaeogene and Neogene hydrogeological systems of the North Sea: preparation of an IODP scientific drilling bid was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30. The North Sea Basin (NSB) is considered to be suitable for commercial-scale CO2 storage, due to its favourable geological setting, its proximity to sources, and pioneering operational experience storing CO2 at the Sleipner injection site. The shallow Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the NSB form the overburden and seal to these underlying CO2 reservoirs but are under-researched, even though the NSB is a mature petroleum system, penetrated by many thousands of wells. Quaternary sediments, up to 1000 metres thick, are in general bypassed to reach the deeper, profitable hydrocarbon resources. UKCCSRC and CLIMIT programme funded scientific, governmental and industrial partners from the UK and Norway to collaborate with the purpose of submitting a proposal to the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) for scientific drilling to investigate the overburden to CO2 storage strata.
Fiscal metering could face several challenges during CO2 transport by pipelines due to the unusual physical properties of CO2 and CO2 mixtures. Coriolis flowmeters are an options to measure CO2 accurately in transport pipelines. However, the presence of impurities can affect the performance of the flowmeter. Therefore, the performance of a Coriolis flowmeter was evaluated using CO2 fluid with impurities in a mass flow-rig designed based on the gravimetric calibration in start / stop operations. In each test, the mass recorded by the Coriolis flowmeter was compared to the mass collected in the receiving facilities and measured using high accurate balance in order to obtain the relative deviation of the test. During the tests, in addition to the mass and volume flow rate, the operational pressure and temperature as well as velocity and density were recorded. The series of tests were conducted using different fluids, including: pure N2 (validation tests), pure CO2 (reference tests), pre-combustion mixture, post-combustion mixture, Oxyfuel-I mixture and Oxyfuel-II mixture. The recorded data as well as recorded and measured masses are available in the provided excel files for each investigated fluid. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-201
The RISCS (Research into Impacts and Safety in CO2 Storage) project assessed the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological CO2 storage. Consideration was given to possible impacts on groundwater resources and on near surface ecosystems both onshore and offshore. The aim of the project was to assist storage site operators and regulators in assessing the potential impacts of leakage so that these could be considered during all phases of a storage project (project design, site characterisation, site operation, post-operation and site abandonment, and following transfer of liability back to the state). A secondary objective was to inform policy makers, politicians and the general public of the feasibility and long-term benefits and consequences of large-scale CO2 capture and storage (CCS) deployment. RISCS was a 4 year project supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme. Project website http://www.riscs-co2.eu.
Excel file containing the bubble measurement data. The dynamic characteristics of CO2 bubbles in Scottish seawater are investigated through observational data obtained from the QICS project. Images of the leaked CO2 bubble plume rising in the seawater were captured. This observation made it possible to discuss the dynamics of the CO2 bubbles in plumes leaked in seawater from the sediments. Utilising ImageJ, an image processing program, the underwater recorded videos were analysed to measure the size and velocity of the CO2 bubbles individually. It was found that most of the bubbles deform to non-spherical bubbles and the measured equivalent diameters of the CO2 bubbles observed near the sea bed are to be between 2 and 12 mm. The data processed from the videos showed that the velocities of 75% of the leaked CO2 bubbles in the plume are in the interval 25-40 cm/s with Reynolds numbers (Re) 500-3500, which are relatively higher than those of an individual bubble in quiescent water. The drag coefficient Cd is compared with numerous laboratory investigations, where agreement was found between the laboratory and the QICS experimental results with variations mainly due to the plume induced vertical velocity component of the seawater current and the interactions between the CO2 bubbles (breakup and coalescence). The breakup of the CO2 bubbles has been characterised and defined by Eotvos number, Eo, and Re.