Carbon capture and storage
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In January 1993, as part of the Joule II Non-nuclear Energy Research Programme, the European Commission initiated a two year study of the potential for the disposal of industrial quantifies of carbon dioxide underground, with a view to reducing emissions to the atmosphere. The participants in the study were the British Geological Survey (UK), TNO Institute of Applied Geoscience (The Netherlands), BRGM (France), CRE Group Ltd (UK), IKU Petroleum Research (Norway), RWE AG (Germany), University of Sunderland Renewable Energy Centre (UK) and Statoil (Norway). The objective of the study was to examine whether carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources such as power stations, could be disposed of safely, economically and with no adverse effects on man and the environment. doi:10.1016/0196-8904(95)00308-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0196890495003088
The solubility of water (H2O) in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) mixtures (xN2 = 0.050 and 0.100, mole fraction) has been investigated at 25 and 40 degrees C in the pressure range between 8 and 18 MPa. The motivation for this work is to aid the understanding of water solubility in complex CO2-based mixtures, which is required for the safety of anthropogenic CO2 transport via pipeline for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The measurements have been performed using an FTIR spectroscopic approach and demonstrate that this method is a suitable technique to determine the concentration of water in both pure CO2 and CO2 + N2 mixtures. The presence of N2 lowers the mole concentration of water in CO2 by up to 42% for a given pressure in the studied conditions and this represents important data for the development of pipelines for CCS. This work also provides preliminary indications that the key parameters for the solubility of H2O in such CO2 + N2 mixtures are the temperature and the overall density of the fluid mixture and not solely the given pressure of the CCS mixture. This could have implications for understanding the parameters required to be monitored during the safer transportation of CO2 mixtures in CCS pipelines. The paper is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583615000444, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.002. UKCCSRC Grants UKCCSRC-C1-21 and UKCCSRC-C2-185.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project CO2 storage in Palaeogene and Neogene hydrogeological systems of the North Sea: preparation of an IODP scientific drilling bid was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30. The North Sea Basin (NSB) is considered to be suitable for commercial-scale CO2 storage, due to its favourable geological setting, its proximity to sources, and pioneering operational experience storing CO2 at the Sleipner injection site. The shallow Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the NSB form the overburden and seal to these underlying CO2 reservoirs but are under-researched, even though the NSB is a mature petroleum system, penetrated by many thousands of wells. Quaternary sediments, up to 1000 metres thick, are in general bypassed to reach the deeper, profitable hydrocarbon resources. UKCCSRC and CLIMIT programme funded scientific, governmental and industrial partners from the UK and Norway to collaborate with the purpose of submitting a proposal to the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) for scientific drilling to investigate the overburden to CO2 storage strata.
Final SACS 1 Report - Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage : a demonstration project at the Sleipner Field. Work area 1 (geology). The report can be downloaded from http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/512807/.
The RISCS (Research into Impacts and Safety in CO2 Storage) project assessed the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological CO2 storage. Consideration was given to possible impacts on groundwater resources and on near surface ecosystems both onshore and offshore. The aim of the project was to assist storage site operators and regulators in assessing the potential impacts of leakage so that these could be considered during all phases of a storage project (project design, site characterisation, site operation, post-operation and site abandonment, and following transfer of liability back to the state). A secondary objective was to inform policy makers, politicians and the general public of the feasibility and long-term benefits and consequences of large-scale CO2 capture and storage (CCS) deployment. RISCS was a 4 year project supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme. Project website http://www.riscs-co2.eu.
Excel file containing the bubble measurement data. The dynamic characteristics of CO2 bubbles in Scottish seawater are investigated through observational data obtained from the QICS project. Images of the leaked CO2 bubble plume rising in the seawater were captured. This observation made it possible to discuss the dynamics of the CO2 bubbles in plumes leaked in seawater from the sediments. Utilising ImageJ, an image processing program, the underwater recorded videos were analysed to measure the size and velocity of the CO2 bubbles individually. It was found that most of the bubbles deform to non-spherical bubbles and the measured equivalent diameters of the CO2 bubbles observed near the sea bed are to be between 2 and 12 mm. The data processed from the videos showed that the velocities of 75% of the leaked CO2 bubbles in the plume are in the interval 25-40 cm/s with Reynolds numbers (Re) 500-3500, which are relatively higher than those of an individual bubble in quiescent water. The drag coefficient Cd is compared with numerous laboratory investigations, where agreement was found between the laboratory and the QICS experimental results with variations mainly due to the plume induced vertical velocity component of the seawater current and the interactions between the CO2 bubbles (breakup and coalescence). The breakup of the CO2 bubbles has been characterised and defined by Eotvos number, Eo, and Re.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Chemical Looping for low-cost Oxygen Production, was presented at the Sheffield Biannual, 08.04.13. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-39.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project, Investigating the radiative heat flux in small and large scale oxy-coal furnaces for CFD model development and system scale up, was presented at the Cardiff Biannual, 10.09.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-193.
The underground disposal of industrial quantities of CO2 is entirely feasible. Cost is the main barrier to implementation. The preferred concept is disposal into porous and permeable reservoirs capped by a low permeability seal, ideally, but not necessarily, at depths of around 800 metres or more, where the CO2 will be in a dense phase. New concepts and refined reservoir models are continually emerging. As more regional estimates are carried out it appears that there will be ample underground storage capacity in the worlds sedimentary basins. Storage will be stable over geological timescales. The (remote) possibility of an escape of CO2 from a storage reservoir onshore merits further investigation and modelling. It would be highly desirable to learn as much as possible from the operators of the new CO2 disposal schemes arising from natural gas processing in offshore gas fields, as few such opportunities may arise. doi:10.1016/S0196-8904(96)00268-3. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890496002683
The images in this dataset are a sample of Doddington Sandstone from a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan acquired with a voxel resolution of 6.4µm. This dataset is part of a study on the effects of Voxel Resolution in a study of flow in porous media. A brief overview of this study summarised from Shah et al 2015 follows. A fundamental understanding of flow in porous media at the pore-scale is necessary to be able to upscale average displacement processes from core to reservoir scale. The study of fluid flow in porous media at the pore-scale consists of two key procedures: Imaging reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) pore space images; and modelling such as with single and two-phase flow simulations with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) or Pore-Network (PN) Modelling. Here we analyse pore-scale results to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity, single phase permeability and multi-phase properties at different length scales. The fundamental issue is to understand the image resolution dependency of transport properties, in order to up-scale the flow physics from pore to core scale. In this work, we use a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner to image and reconstruct three dimensional pore-scale images of five sandstones and five complex carbonates at four different voxel resolutions (4.4ìm, 6.2ìm, 8.3ìm and 10.2ìm, scanning the same physical field of view. S.M.Shah, F. Gray, J.P. Crawshaw and E.S. Boek, 2015. Micro-Computed Tomography pore-scale study of flow in porous media: Effect of Voxel Resolution. Advances in Water Resources July 2015 doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.07.012 We gratefully acknowledge permission to publish and funding from the Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC), provided jointly by Qatar Petroleum, Shell, and Qatar Science & Technology Park. Qatar Petroleum remain copyright owners