Basalt
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Neodymium (Nd) concentrations, Nd radiogenic isotopes (143Nd/144Nd) and Nd stable isotopes (d146/144Nd) for chondritic meteorites, terrestrial basalts and mantle rocks, and rock reference materials.

High precision electronprobe analysis of olivine compositions from a set of ocean island basalts. Accompanied by thin section scans and QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by SCANning) compositional maps.

The data are magnesium (Mg) isotope composition, i.e. the relative difference of isotope ratios as defined in Coplen (2011, doi: 10.1002/rcm.5129). The reference was DSM3 (see Galy et al., 2003, doi: 10.1039/b309273a) and data are given in per mil. Samples consisted of terrestrial peridotites and basalts as well as a suite of meteorites including chondrites, shergottites, diogenites and one angrite. A large portion of the data have been published in Hin et al. (2017, doi: 10.1038/nature23899).

Major and trace element data for partial melts derived from high pressuretemperature experiments on a basaltic starting composition from the Ontong Java Oceanic Plateau.

We provide here Pb isotope data for the basement rocks cored during IODP Expedition 352 (Bonin Forearc). The data are reported as 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios together with their errors. The overall accuracy of the data was determined using international standard NBS SRM 981. Values for this standard achieved during the measurement period were 206Pb/204Pb = 16.9404 ±32,207Pb/204Pb = 15.4969 ±32, 208Pb/204Pb = 36.7149 ±90 (2sd; n=44). The data are separated into four parts one for each drill site that cored basement. Sites 1440B and 1441A both sampled a basalt type known as FAB (Forearc Basalts), whereas Sites 1439C and 1442A both sampled boninites (Mgrich andesites). Both rock types are typical of the forearc setting and contain information needed to understand the process of subduction initiation. A summary of the Expedition, and hence the petrography and setting of the samples as well as the various scientific objectives for the project to which these analyses contribute) may be found in: Reagan, M.K., Pearce, J.A., and Petronotis, K., Expedition Scientists, 2015, IzuBoninMariana Fore Arc: Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, 352. International Ocean Discovery Program, http://dx.doi.org/10.14379/iodp.proc.352.2015.

Primary data, model initial conditions, model results, a compiled database of olivine diffusivity experiments and supplementary tables used in the paper: 'Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid transcrustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience'. Data_S1 contains electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) profile data of olivine crystals used in this study. This file also includes all of the initial conditions for forsterite content (XFo), Ni and Mn used in the diffusion modelling. Standard deviations are averaged values of standard deviations from counting statistics and repeat measurements of secondary standards. Data_S2 is a compiled database of olivine diffusion experiments used to derive multiple linear regressions for diffusion coefficients and associated covariance matrices. Regressions were only made through [001] data. Data_S3 contains median values for all of the inverted parameters estimated for each crystal profile from the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion for each type of initial condition and model equation. All of the Monte Carlo realisations for each model are also included in this file. Table_S1 is a supplementary table that contains olivine diffusion equation regression parameters derived and used as part of this study. Table_S2 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S3 is a supplementary table that contains covariance matrices for aSiO2 (silica activity) dependent olivine diffusion equations derived in this study. Table_S4 is a supplementary table that contains angles between the EPMA profile and the main crystallographic axes in olivine as measured by EBSD. These angles are incorporated into the anisotropy calculation used to determine the apparent diffusivity parallel to the measured profile. angle100P, angle010P and angle001P are the angles between the profile and [100], [010] and [001] respectively. Table_S5 is a supplementary table that contains ,median timescales and 1 sigma errors obtained from the posterior distributions of the Nested Sampling Bayesian inversion conducted on each olivine profile. The results using Albased initial conditions, constant initial conditions (diffusion only), and aSiO2 based equations using Albased initial conditions are presented here. The classification of each profile (growthdominated vs. Aldecoupled) is also shown. See paper (Mutch, E. J. F., Maclennan J., Shorttle, O., Edmonds, M. & Rudge, J. F., (2019), Rapid transcrustal magma movement under Iceland, Nature Geoscience) for more details.