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The dataset has been published open-access in Ilyinskaya et al. (2017), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 472, 309-322 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.025 This study quantifies the air quality impact of Holuhraun eruption 2014-2015 on populated areas in Iceland. Specifically we trace the evolution of the plume chemistry from the eruption site to 2 key areas of population: Reykjahlid, which is the nearest municipality to Holuhraun at 100 km distance, and Reykjavik capital area, which hosts ~60% of Iceland's population, 250 km distance. This dataset is the full chemical analysis of filter pack samples of volcanic gas and aerosol, including trace species (e.g. heavy metals).