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    Surface waters and shallow groundwater samples were collected by completely filling 30 mL polyethylene bottles, which were then sealed with electrical tape to minimise the risk of evaporative loss. Rainwater samples were integrated samples of total monthly rainfall collected in a specially-adapted rainfall collector following IAEA protocols (IAEA http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/ih/documents/userupdate/sampling.pdf [accessed 22 June 2012). Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were determined simultaneously using a 'Picarro' WS-CRDS system at the University of Liverpool or the University of Cambridge. Jamaica, Parish of St Elizabeth. Wallywash Great Pond (lat: 17.9716°; long: -77.8068°) (lake water and groundwater samples) and Pon de Rock Guest House (lat: 17.9156°; long: -77.7973°) (rainwater samples). Refer to accompanying map for the precise location of the lake water sampling sites

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    Global warming during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma) is commonly interpreted as being driven by massive destabilization of carbon from surficial sedimentary reservoirs. If correct, this has important implications for the amplification of future fossil fuel emissions via carbon-climate feedbacks. In our study we provided new paired records of boron and carbon isotope changes in the ocean that questions this long-held interpretation. Our data are implemented in an Earth system model to reconstruct the unfolding carbon cycle dynamics across the event. Strong evidence for a larger (>10,000 PgC) and on average isotopically heavier (> -17‰) carbon source leads us to identify volcanism associated with the North Atlantic Igneous Province as the main driver of the PETM. We also find that although organic carbon feedbacks with climate played a more minor role in driving the event than previously thought, organic matter burial was important in ultimately sequestering this carbon and driving the recovery of the system. Data presented in this data set comprise geochemical elemental, as well as boron, carbon and oxygen isotopic data from surface dwelling foraminifera Morozovella Subbotina. Alongside the boron isotopic data we also provide reconstructed surface water pH with corresponding uncertainties for our preferred pH reconstruction.

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    Surface waters and shallow groundwater samples were collected by completely filling 30 mL polyethylene bottles, which were then sealed with electrical tape to minimise the risk of evaporative loss. Rainwater samples were integrated samples of total monthly rainfall collected in a specially-adapted rainfall collector following IAEA protocols (IAEA http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/ih/documents/userupdate/sampling.pdf [accessed 22 June 2012). Mexico, State of Yucatan. Yaal Chac (lake) (lake centre is Lat: 20.595274 degrees; Long: -89.711301 degrees), Abala Well (Lat: 20.649044 degrees; Long: -89.679814 degrees) and Xanil ha Cave (Lat: 20.650809 degrees; Long: -89.697426 degrees) Rainwater sampler was located adjacent to the lake. Refer to accompanying map for the precise location of the sampling sites.

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    A worldwide compilation of 645 analyses of Sm and Nd concentrations, and Nd isotopes, in fine-grained continental sedimentary rocks with a range of deposition ages. These data were used in Dhuime et al. (2017, Sedimentary Geology 357, 16-32) to calculate the variation in the Nd model age of fine-grained continental sediments as a function of their age of deposition.

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    A worldwide compilation of 333 analyses of U and Pb concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from island arc magmas. These data were used in Delavault et al. (2016, Geology 44, 819-822) to calculate the present-day distribution of the U/Pb ratios in magmas generated in subduction setting.

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    A worldwide compilation of 189 analyses of U and Pb concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from ocean island magmas. These data were used in Delavault et al. (2016, Geology 44, 819-822) to calculate the present-day distribution of the U/Pb ratios in magmas generated in intraplate setting.

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    Cation, anion and Sr isotope data from Nepalese river water. Suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment chemistry presented as wt% oxides from Nepalese rivers. Both the waters and sediments were collected following the 2015 earthquakes.

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    Boron isotope and trace metal measurements of fibrous aragonite in modern deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus and associated CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center) hydrographic data. Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean

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    Major and trace element data for partial melts derived from high pressure-temperature experiments on a basaltic starting composition from the Ontong Java Oceanic Plateau.

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    Samples of high-grade amphibolite-facies gneiss collected from north west Bhutan. Data comprises samples mineral chemistry data, U-Pb rutile data and garnet trace element compositions.